Наука. Технологии. Инновации: 2017 : краткий статистический сборник
This book develops foresight techniques to turn future societal challenges into opportunities. The authors present foresight approaches for innovation policy and management. Future developments in fields such as education, energy, new materials, nanotechnologies are highlighted for different countries. Readers will discover tools and instruments to capture the potentials of the grand societal challenges as defined by the United Nations. This book is a valuable resource for researchers and scholars with an interest in foresight methods and gives practical hints for policy makers and managers to take account of the grand opportunities in their business and policy strategies.
This paper evaluates prospective technology areas, development strategies, and various innovation resources in China's pharmaceutical sector through the use of a hierarchical decision model. The results indicate that although domestic SMEs are the major preferred innovation alternative, it is followed closely by foreign MNCs. The sensitivity analysis indicates that the effectiveness of policy decisions are influenced by certain high technology areas. Recombinant therapeutic proteins, recombinant vaccines, and monoclonal antibody technologies are identified as the major areas that will influence the priority of innovation resources. The research crafts a research framework to formulate innovation strategies in dealing with the uncertainties of technology development and policy decisions in the biopharmaceutical industry.
The paper illustrates capabilities of a new statistical tool developed for comprehensive in-depth quantitative analysis of research and innovation activity of Russian higher education institutions (HEIs). The results of such analysis are applicable for planning, coordination, and control of addressed public polices in S&T and innovation. The novelty of the approach and its implications to official statistics is explained by critical review of existing standard statistical tools for monitoring HEI potential and activities. The review is followed by detailed description of new methodology. The main part of the paper provides descriptive statistics based on the experimental tool as well as conclusions on application of these results for more in-depth analysis and for policy advise to Russian S&T and innovation policy-makers.
This unique Handbook provides an in-depth overview of the themes and direction of science, technology, innovation, and public policy in an increasingly globalized world. Leading authorities discuss current debates, research issues, and prospects, and present a foundation for the development of global policy.Presents a state-of-the-art overview of science, technology, and innovation in the context of globalization and global policy Offers an accessible introduction for students, researchers, and policy makers in the fields of economics, sociology, political science, business studies, global studies, and international relations Addresses emerging issues and provides clear policy implications and analysis in each chapter Includes crucial coverage of the activities of established and emerging geographical areas Explores the ways in which reforms in intellectual property rights and world trade have been affected by the increasingly international flows of knowledge, technology, and innovation Examines major policy trends, including a significant shift toward private scientific research, and a heightened awareness amongst policy-makers of the economic and technological impact of scientific activity
Recently there have been widely spread models (classifications) of educational institutions (schools) based upon regularly collected statistical data and a presupposition that all the standard indices incorporated in those models have the same meanings concerning to every possible school. The article questions this presupposition.
A model for organizing cargo transportation between two node stations connected by a railway line which contains a certain number of intermediate stations is considered. The movement of cargo is in one direction. Such a situation may occur, for example, if one of the node stations is located in a region which produce raw material for manufacturing industry located in another region, and there is another node station. The organization of freight traﬃc is performed by means of a number of technologies. These technologies determine the rules for taking on cargo at the initial node station, the rules of interaction between neighboring stations, as well as the rule of distribution of cargo to the ﬁnal node stations. The process of cargo transportation is followed by the set rule of control. For such a model, one must determine possible modes of cargo transportation and describe their properties. This model is described by a ﬁnite-dimensional system of diﬀerential equations with nonlocal linear restrictions. The class of the solution satisfying nonlocal linear restrictions is extremely narrow. It results in the need for the “correct” extension of solutions of a system of diﬀerential equations to a class of quasi-solutions having the distinctive feature of gaps in a countable number of points. It was possible numerically using the Runge–Kutta method of the fourth order to build these quasi-solutions and determine their rate of growth. Let us note that in the technical plan the main complexity consisted in obtaining quasi-solutions satisfying the nonlocal linear restrictions. Furthermore, we investigated the dependence of quasi-solutions and, in particular, sizes of gaps (jumps) of solutions on a number of parameters of the model characterizing a rule of control, technologies for transportation of cargo and intensity of giving of cargo on a node station.