Globalization at the end of the 20th and the beginning of the 21st centuries and the global population shifts connected with it have led to the formation of the so-called, "negative identity" in many countries, including Russia and the USA. The phenomenon of negative identity is well studied. The social-political boundaries of the manifestation of negative identity are investigated to a less extent. The author gives an attempt to analyze the specificity of Muslim ethnic groups' residency in Russia and the USA.
The article touches approach of the modern Islamic legal thought to the Islamic state and caliphate. The author explains the fundamental principles if Islamic concept of the power (caliphate) and points out that this concept was gradually deviating from real political practice. The caliphate itself remained as a political institution till the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after the World War I. After emergence of Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL) the caliphate converted to concrete political project. In June 2014 ISIL which changed its name to become “Islamic State” (IS) declared creation of caliphate. In practice the Shariat implementation in IS comes to mass killings, forcing nonmuslims to adopt Islam, interference into internal life of Muslim states and terror attacks. The modern Islamic legal thought criticizes IS severely stressing on its violence of religious postulates and Shariat provisions.
Propaganda plays the key role in ISIS recruitment and sustainment of its base. It is critical to understand the inner workings of ISIS mindset. Ideological aspects that have major propagandist aspects have equal validity as military strength in understanding ISIS. Recruitment to ISIS and sustainment of its core base, have powerful ideological underpinnings. Islamic eschatological concepts play an important role in understanding how ISIS functions and claims successes. Why does ISIS continue to be attractive for large groups of people from a variety of countries and regions? Islamic eschatology is a key lens through which to examine both the concepts and the practical operations of ISIS, and therefore understand ways to challenge this major threat. The propagandist aspects have to be countered in sophisticated and carefully orchestrated ways to undermine the very essence of ISISS ideology and modus operandi. The paper has been adapted for professional reading of field operatives.