Учебно-исследовательский маршрут «Транскенозерская тропа»
The article “The Masonry Architecture of Kargopol’ in the Early 18th Century” deals with one of many regional architectural traditions of Russia in the 18th century. Only three churches were built in Kargopol’ in this period, and they have never been subject of detailed research. The only surviving building the katholikon of Oshevensk monastery (1707–1734) is the key artifact. The author argues, that the church receives very sophisticated composition due to desire of its founders to copy the architectural forms of the famous Solovki monastery. The second church, that of the Spasski monastery (1707–1717), located in the town of Kargopol’, is now destroyed and only can be seen on some old photos. These photos were discovered in the archive by the author and were published for the first time in this article. Unfortunately, we have no images of the third, Uspenski church in Kargopol’ (1715–1730) which was also destroyed. Its forms are roughly described on the basis of archive documents. The author concludes, the Kargopol’ architecture is unique because it is the most conservative one in the early 18th century Russia. The buildings still represent Post-Byzantine tradition some 30 years after the introduction of European Mannerist and Baroque forms into Russian architecture.
The article’s authors describe their experiences organizing and conducting field research training of National Research University–Higher School of Economics students over the course of 10 years. Field expeditions are defined by the exposure they give (metropolitan) students to the phenomenology of provincial everyday life. The methodology used is grounded in the principals of qualitative social research. Methods used for the direct (“naive”) observation and description of the features of local public life include case studies, unstructured interviews, and situational conversations with local people. The authors describe five kinds of field expedition practices that they have developed for students: (1) visiting training seminars in addition to the authorized course; (2) field research incorporated into academic study practices; (3) retreats as part of research seminars; (4) summer school expeditions; and (5) sociological research expeditions.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.