Католическая Энциклопедия в 5 тт.
On the basis of an international survey, the article analyzes the health and well-being of the elderly (55+) of different religious background in 14 European countries. Religious affiliation and activity are shown to have an insignificant influence on the health of the elderly both within European countries on the whole and within Western and Eastern countries separately. It is concluded that country origin is more significant than religious affiliation and activity.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.