Entrepreneurship in Transition Economies
This book presents a state-of-the-art portrait of entrepreneurship in the transition economies of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) as well as Georgia and Ukraine. Based on new empirical evidence, it highlights major trends in, characteristics and forms of entrepreneurship common to countries in transition. The contributions cover topics such as levels of opportunity-based entrepreneurship, incentives for innovation, dominance of large-scale international corporations, the role of family businesses, and opportunities for grass-roots entrepreneurship.
The first part of the book focuses on theoretical considerations regarding the establishment of sustainable entrepreneurial ecosystems and private business. In turn, the second part offers cross-border studies of entrepreneurial environments and activities, while the third and fourth present case studies on the current state and unique characteristics of entrepreneurship in various countries of the CEE and CIS as well as Georgia and Ukraine. Finally, the last parts discuss the role of institutions and policy recommendations.
Drawing on a unique dataset of 9685 Internet freelancers, we shed light on the entrepreneurial potential of the Russian-language online labour market, where more than half of freelancers exhibit entrepreneurial orientations. Our findings reveal heterogeneity of Internet freelancers in relation to entrepreneurship documenting strong differences amongst groups of actual entrepreneurs, potential entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs in terms of socio-demographics, professional characteristics, work behaviour and wellbeing. The fact that by most indicators potential entrepreneurs who plan to start a business typically take an intermediate position between non-entrepreneurs and actual entrepreneurs signals the feasibility of entrepreneurial intentions. Researching the entrepreneurial potential of Internet freelancers contributes to better understanding of how solo self-employment may give rise to new businesses in knowledge-intensive and creative industries which are crucial for modernising transition economies.
The chapter deals with the regional differences in the structure of motivation of early entrepreneurial activity (opportunity vs. necessity driven) in Russia and the factors influencing this difference measured by an index called the share of opportunity-based early entrepreneurs (SOBE). It is shown that the differences in SOBE levels among Russian regions are statistically significant; cross-regional differences in the SOBE level reflect a certain set of regional social and economic factors immediately or with a short, medium or even long term (10 years) lag. The empirical part is based on the survey designed by the Higher School of Economics which was conducted in 2011 in 79 regions of Russia with a sample of 56 900 respondents. The survey is representative for the structure of the adult population in each of the surveyed regions.
Summarising the content of the whole volume