Психология детей младшего школьного возраста : учебник и практикум для академического бакалавриата
This book paints a portrait of adolescent psychology in 4 major regions: Africa/the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the International Encyclopedia of Adolescence (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. Most contributors are indigenous to the country they review. As a whole the book paints an engaging panorama of adolescent life around the world, broadening students' cultural perspective. All chapters follow the same template to make it easier to compare topics across countries: Background (including demographics, ethnic diversity, and political system), Period of Adolescence, Beliefs, Gender, the Self, Family Relationships, Friends and Peers/Youth Culture, Love and Sexuality, Health Risk Behavior, Education, Work, Media, Politics and Military, and Unique Issues. Each chapter contains a map and photos and a list of references and suggested readings. ? The introductory chapter explains why the countries were selected and introduces the book's common themes. The section on Africa and the Middle East introduces students to teen life in Cameroon, one of the few places left where adolescents go through formal puberty rituals. In addition, readers learn about adolescent life in Ethiopia, Israel, Morocco, Nigeria, and Sudan. Next we travel to Asia -- China, India, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Here readers see how economic growth in India and China is creating opportunities for young people. In The Americas, readers are introduced to life in Argentina, Canada, Chile, Mexico, Peru, and the United States. The book concludes with adolescent life in Europe including the Czech Republic, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Russia, Sweden, and the UK. Intended for courses in adolescent psychology, lifespan development, and/or cultural (cross-cultural) psychology taught in departments of psychology, human development and family studies, sociology, and education, this book will also appeal to researchers and clinicians who study or work with adolescents.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.