Образ инженера XXI века: социальная оценка техники и устойчивое развитие
The paper focuses on Heidegger’s own concept of “genuine technology” (echte Technik) as closely related to his interpretation of the Aristotelian distinction between physis and techne. The proposed hypothesis is that three complex concepts “care – work – techne/technology” can be considered as crystallization points of Heidegger’s thought of the late 1920 and early 1930’s, the points interconnected by a systematic line.
While engineers play one of the main roles in the advanced industrial society, they also develop technologies and design our future. Yet, in contemporary philosophy, culture and engineering are usually discussed separately, engineering knowledge and education are usually contrasted with the socio-humanitarian knowledge. This can be dealt with using a “value-sensitive design” approach, which is explored through creativity, intentions and expectations. Therefore, this paper intends to overcome the opposition between technology and culture and provides a description of the engineer as an original technological “form of life”, not as a social and professional group. It first addresses E. Spranger’s idea of “forms of life”, which are a mode of conceiving a culture that arose at the turn of the 20th century in conjunction with phenomenology. A set of theoretical resources of sociological thought (H. Freyer) and German engineering philosophy of technology (F. Dessauer, M. Schröter, H. Hardensett) is further proposed to deal with the domination of economic rationality (or pseudo-economic pragmatism) and profile the type of engineer, which cannot be reduced to the “value-neutral” type of the “technician” or “technologist”. This paper focuses on the structure of the project activity as a particular modern “form of life“. It examines the type of engineer as homo creator, which is described as the dominant type in the advanced industrial society.
Although engineering activity produces material things or artefacts, still it has chiefly immaterial nature as far as includes projecting, planning, organizing and other intellectual activities. Investigation, development, production as integral parts of engeneering are always dependent on systems of market, political decision-making, cultural values, traditions and images of everyday life, i.e. incorporated within the life-world. In this regard, engineers don’t form the “technosphere“ but rather create guidelines for action by integrating concrete values of man’s life-world into technologies (for example, innovations and sustainable development). Integration of technology and culture proceeds not externally but within the project activity which provides an opportunity to implement the concrete technical form of life and transform life-worlds of contemporary industrial societies.
The principal hypothesis is that the activity of engineering, which produces technology is not a variation of the instrumental reason but the expression of the infinite creative freedom implemented in the European culture. It is pointed out that the compensative function of technology (Mangeltheorie) shall be called into question and replaced by the notion of technology as “optimation” (Optimierungstheorie). I claim that technology produces surplus possibilities which surpass all imagination. According to Dessauer, technology can be conceived real being from ideas and participation in divine creation (Weiterschöpfung). The engineering inventions and the technological transformation of the world make us aware of escalation, innovation and crossing of space and time borders which allow the technological spirit to unfold the perfect technological universe.
This remark for the ”Black Mirror” philosophy discussion considers the transformations of the punishment system based on the technological development perspectives presented in the “Black Mirror” series. The state, by introducing certain laws, seeks to limit the actions of persons, creating for them a certain frame of behavior; moreover, it seeks not only to define the limits of what is permitted, but also to ensure that the person does not violate them. Modern digital technologies can provide an opportunity not only to monitor compliance with all existing rules, but also to make decisions about punishment and even to implement them. At the same time, unlike in the past, persons might be safe not only from any physical punishment, but also from any exclusion from the usual physical space. They may go on living in their homes, walking along the streets – however, at the same time they are experiencing an exclusion from society: being physically close to other people, they can no longer contact them. The question is posed of what consequences for the individual and society such a transformation of punishments might have.
The paper focuses on Heidegger’s own concept of „genuine technology“ (echte Technik) as closely related to his interpretation of the Aristotelian distinction between physis and techne. My hypothesis is that three complex concepts „care – work – techne/technology“ can be considered as crystallization points of Heidegger’s systematical thought of the late 1920 and early 1930’s.