The paper discusses the origin of pragmatic writing in Early Rus’ and its relationship to the Church Slavonic tradition. The emergence of birchbark literacy in Novgorod at about 1030 is treated as a by-product of the spread of church education under the reign of Jaroslav the Wise. The intermingling of lay and ecclesiastic affairs in the life of Lyudin konec of Novgorod is shown to have produded the breeding ground for the proliferation of birchbark writing in this part of the city.
The article is a preliminary publication of the birchbark letters found in Novgorod and Staraya Russa during the archeological season of 2016.
The book is a volume of research articles on history and archaeology of Novgorod and Novgorod Land from Middle afes to the Early Modern
The article deal with the issue of relations between Swedish administration (General De la Gardie) and Novgorod society in 1611-1617. The plot of the study is the evolution of the regime – from alliance (1612-1612) to occupation (since late 1614 – 1617).