A/Z: Essays in Honor of Alexander Zholkovsky
A. S. Nemzer points out a large series of reminiscences of folcloric and classic literary texts in Solzhenitsyn's story. Preserving the memory of Matriona (who perished but who lives in literature) is inseparately linked to a restoration of a living Russian language and Russian literature.
The article deals with the architectonic of Blaise Pascal's "Pensees". "Pensees" is the text combined with fragments. Its plot may be found in poetics of "order". The thematical and compositional center is the genre of apology.
An analysis of the Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck shows that the depicted figures are arranged according to the dualism of earthly versus heavenly space. Two kinds of perspective are presented here: that of an external observer (this perspective virtually corresponds to the point of view of a spectator who is watching the Altarpiece) and that of an internal observer imagined to be within the depicted world (i.e. the Divine perspective). The external perspective is used to represent the earthly space, whereas the internal perspective serves for the representation of the heavenly space. This contraposition of the two opposite points of view is specifically revealed on the opened altar panels in the right-left orientation. In the foreground the more valuable figures are placed on the right while in the middleground the more valuable is placed on the left (from the point of view of a spectator of the Altarpiece). It is argued that in both cases the right side has the priority (is semiotically marked as more important); however in the foreground the organisation of figures is correlated with our point of view (that of the external observer who is outside the depicted world) while in the middleground the figures are arranged according to the point of view of an internal observer. The former principle is typical for Renaissance art and the latter one is characteristic for Medieval art, especially for icon-painting. Incidentally it is very clear in the terminology of icon-painters: the righthand part of the icon was thought as the left (and it was called "left") and, conversely, the left part of the painting was considered to be the right part (and accordingly it was called "right"). In other words the reckoning was not from our point of view but from the point of view of our implicit vis-a-vis. Famous as a protoganist of the Renaissance art, van Eyck actually uses both principles, the Renaissance and the Medieval one: the Renaissance principle is used for representation of the earthly space, the traditional Medieval principle serves for representation of the heavenly space. Indeed the central part of the opened Atarpiece is organized like an icon.
The panels on the closed altar illustrate the dualism between earth and heaven in a different way. In the earthly space, heavenly figures take the form of statues and pictures, whereas in the heavenly space they are alive. At the same time the figures of Archangel Gabriel and the Virgin stylistically correspond to the statues of saints: the same colours are used and their garment is presented as a sculptural relief. The dialogue between the Archangel and the Virgin confirms this complementarity of perspectives: Gabriel’s words address earth and are thus to be read from below; Mary’s words address heaven and their letters therefore appear upside-down to the human observer. The paper concludes with the hypothesis that the opposition between the earthly and the heavenly is not only a principle of composition of the Ghent Altarpiece but also its central theme.
The poem “Мне выпало счастье быть русским поэтом…” (1981) was first published in the book Voices Beyond the Hills, where it concluded a mini-cycle of four octets: “Год рождения не выбирают…” (1978), “Я слышал то, что слышать мог…” (1981), “Да, мне повезло в этом мире…” (1982), and “Мне выпало счастье быть русским поэтом…” (Самойлов 1985: 69-71); cf. (Самойлов 2006: 256, 305, 311, 301). Although Samoilov did not give an overall title to these texts as a group, they undoubtedly form a conceptual unity. In addition to the texts’ common themes (a summarization of life events), confessional tones, and equal lengths (the octet is the most common form in Voices Beyond the Hills: 36 out of 131 poems, about 27.5%), their graphical treatment is of note.
The book describes the problem of transition of different structures of literature in the austrian literature.
The article deals with the reception of the French poet Francis Jamme's verse in the early Mayakovsky's poetry. It reveals the significance of the dialogue between the two poets for the construction of Mayakovsky's poetical world.
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.