Responding to Massification: Differentiation in Postsecondary Education Worldwide
Higher Education has become a central institution of society, building individual knowledge, skills, agency, and relational social networks at unprecedented depth and scale. Within a generation there has been an extraordinary global expansion of Higher Education, in every region in all but the poorest countries, outstripping economic growth and deriving primarily from familial aspirations for betterment. By focusing on the systems and countries that have already achieved near universal participation, High Participation Systems of Higher Education explores this remarkable transformation. The world enrolment ratio, now rising by 10 per cent every decade, is approaching 40 per cent, mostly in degree-granting institutions, including three quarters of young people in North America and Europe. Higher Education systems in the one in three countries that enrol more than 50 per cent are here classified as 'high participation systems'. Part I of the book measures, maps, and explains the growth of participation, and the implications for society and Higher Education itself. Drawing on a wide range of literature and data, the chapters theorize the changes in governance, institutional diversity, and stratification in Higher Education systems, and the subsequent effects in educational and social equity. The theoretical propositions regarding high-participation Higher Education developed in these chapters are then tested in the country case studies in Part II, presenting a comprehensive enquiry into the nature of the emerging 'high participation society'.
This article is devoted to studying of the peculiarities of city-level officials’ professional activity in Russia, namely the relevant competencies comprising the base of their specialties. The state’s recently increased determination to standardize the sector of employment has been reflected in development of professional codes for many professions. But government and municipal employees are practically excluded from this process.
The up-to-date problem of improvement of the quality of higher equation is discussed in the present article. Results of the world rating of the higher-educational institutions for 2011 and 2012 as well as its Russian positions are given by the QS research agency. «Strategy-2020» is being discussed (paragraph 10. Professional education). The author of the article shares with her experience in arrangement of original student work in the form of on-line study. The article deals with the thesis «High-quality education today is deserving life in the future».
With annoying lateness ideologists of general higher education have carried out the analysis (V.E.Gimpelson. «A trade choice: in that studied and where were useful?») also have found out that only 60 % of owners of diplomas of high school work on highest level specialities, and in the field of biological and agricultural sciences — 20 %. Almost 30 % of engineers occupy workplaces.
The chapter provides an analysis of the Russian system of higher education in a comparative perspective, including massification and social inequality issues.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.