Социальные и демографические аспекты экономического развития
Social and demographic problems of the economic development are examined
Professional education problems are examineted
Nowadays in Russian Federation the model of professional municipal managers - city managers is beginning to shape. In this paper we investigate the dynamics of socio-economic development of nine cities in the Altai Territory, which have introduced a model of "city manager." The conclusion is that studied model improves the socio-economic development of cities.
Adverse demographic trends, adding up to what deserves to be called a demographic crisis, have been apparent in Russia for some time. Th is crisis is bound to have negative impact on qualitative and quantitative features of the country’s human capital, and on potential for development of that capital. Russia has been aff ected by natural decrease of population since 1992: shrinkage has totaled 12.3 million persons over 16 years. Th is phenomenon has been partly compensated by immigration (5.7 million persons), but by the beginning of 2008 the Russian population had declined to 142 million from 148.6 million at the beginning of 1993, a reduction of 6.6 million persons.
In 2006 in his Message to the Russian Federal Assembly, President Vladimir Putin called demography “the most acute problem of modern Russia”. His speech focused attention of the government and society on problems of demography and led to some practical measures for amelioration of the demographic situation. Vladimir Putin and the current President Dmitry Medvedev have emphasized that Russia has so far only taken the first steps and that eff orts to overcome the demographic crisis need to be developed further. Many diffi cult tasks remain to be solved along the way, and the start of a new phase of demographic development, with many highly unfavorable aspects, makes their solution even more complicated. Th ere is no reason to expect that the demographic crisis in Russia, which is the outcome of negative inertia accumulated over decades, will be quickly overcome. Many demographic illnesses have no tried and tested cures. Some of these illnesses are common to other urbanized, industrial and post-industrial countries, have roots in modern ways of life, and are highly intractable for governments, even for a government that pursues a vigorous demographic policy. The capacities and limitations of such policy need to be given a sober and realistic assessment. We cannot change everything, which we do not like. So policy needs to include not only eff orts at changing adverse trends, but also measures for adapting to trends, which cannot be changed.
The role of mineral resource potential in the economy of consolidated budgets of the RF constituent entities is discussed. It is shown that at present this role is minor and earnings from foreign mineral trade are missing in the budgets of the RF constituent entities. Main principles of the efficient use of mineral resource potential to solve near-term problems of social and economic development of the RF constituent entities are formulated. Conditions are defined for ensuring sustainable social and economic growth of the RF constituent entities.
The article analyzes the features of modern demographic development of Russian regions. It is shown that in the conditions of the narrowed reproduction regime, which is typical for the majority of the Russian regions, migration outflow becomes an additional barrier for the implementation of regional programs of social and economic development. The deformation of the age and sex structure of the population, which occurred over the last quarter of a century, has led to qualitative and quantitative changes in the labor potential of the Russian regions. This, in turn, is reflected in the already marked shortage of specialists in a number of sectors of the national economy. In this situation, international migration remains essentially the only source of population replacement. The paper highlights the positive and negative consequences of international migration for Russian regions.
The twenty-seven volume of the series "International Migration of Population: Russia and Contemporary World" is a collection of papers submitted to the Session 06-03 "The effects of migration on areas of destination" of the XXVII IUSSP International Population Conference *26031 August 2013, South Korea, Busan). The session deals with major international migration trends, increasing role of international migration in the demographic development of receiving countries.
The authors are responsible for the reliability of data and other materials used. The series is both of scientific and educational character and can be accordingly used in teaching process.
In their recent paper, Boldrin and Montes (2005) analyzed the “return on human capital investment” theory and showed that if borrowing for education is not possible, then a combined public education and pension system that uses lump-sum revenue from taxes and income transfers can replicate the first-best decentralized allocation achieved in an economy without taxes, where borrowing for human-capital accumulation (education) is permitted. Taking into account that such borrowing is either absent or inefficient in many countries, a combined public education/public pension scheme might prove to be welfare enhancing. Guided by this theoretical framework, the authors calibrate the parameters of an interconnected pension and education system for the Czech Republic under different demographic scenarios and fiscal rules. They also model the impact of increases in the retirement age and of a hypothetical unbalancing of pensions or educational transfers.
This collection includes materials presented for discussion during three theoretical and practical conferences held at the Institute for Far Eastern Studies, the Russian Academy of Sciences, in 2013 through 2015 and published in Russian under common title of the Vietnam Studies in Russia. The papers in this title were selected among those submitted by Russian scholars only and published in issues 4 through 6 of the Vietnam Studies. It aims at acquainting foreign readers and researchers with current state of and case studies on Vietnam in Russia. The authors of presented topics are fulltime employees in major research centers of Russia, such as academic institutions, first of all the Centre for Vietnam and ASEAN studies, IFES RAS, and university centers in Moscow, St. Petersburg and Vladivostok. The collection consists of six subject sections covering the main areas of research and touching upon various realms of Vietnam's internal and foreign policies, social and cultural processes in that country. Part one includes papers discussing the current trends in relations between Russia / USSR and Vietnam. Part two analyzes political situation in Vietnam and its challenges in the region. Part three looks at Vietnam's socio-economic development under the impact of renovation reforms and market economy building. Part four highlights different episodes of Vietnam's history, and Part five represents studies in cultural area. Part six consists of topics on Vietnamese linguistics and literature. The original papers in this collection rely on a wide range of sources and documents, and reflect their authors' own findings. The authors' views do not necessarily represent those of the collection compilers. This collection is the second of its kind in the Russian Federation and is intended for distribution abroad. Volume One was edited by IFES RAS and published by Forum Publishing House in 2014.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.