Российская экономика в 2015 году. Тенденции и перспективы
The review provides a detailed analysis of main trends in Russia's economy in 2015. The paper contains 6 big sections that highlight single aspects of Russia's economic development: the socio-political context; the monetary and credit spheres; financial sphere; the real sector; social sphere; institutional challenges. The paper employs a huge mass of statistical data that forms the basis of original computation and numerous charts.
The transition from direct public administration in the social sphere to regulation and, as a result, the reduction of government organizations in this sphere involves the formation of non-governmental providers of social services, in particular — non-profit organizations (NPOs). Yet, there are a number of economic and legal factors that prevent NPOs from becoming full-fledged actors in the emerging Russian social services market. This paper aims to analyze the factors, on which this process depends, as well as the most typical problems that NPOS face when moving to providing social services. For this reason, the authors have analyzed the official information posted on the websites of federal ministries, the State Statistics Committee, state authorities of Russian regions (Tyumen Region, Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area — Yugra), and legal acts regulating the issues of accessing socially oriented (SO) NPOs to the provision of services and their support. The results show that the (mostly regional) institutional arrangements do not fully account for the resource potential of NPOs, which prevents them from providing the population with social services and accessing the market-oriented mechanisms for the services transfer. In addition, the vulnerability of NPOs as service providers is due to their internal institutional nature, described by L. Salamon, S. Toepler, and H. Anheier as “philanthropic particularism”, “philanthropic paternalism”, “philanthropic insufficiency”, and “philanthropic amateurism”. The empirical material shows the relevance of government support measures for Russian SO NPOs to solving these problems and adapting to the emerging intersectoral competition in the social sector. Without the implementation of regional and municipal programs of property and economic support, as well as the development of the personnel potential, the question of full participation of SO NPOs in the professional provision of social services remains open.
Involving non-profit organizations (NPOs) in providing state and municipal services in the social sphere (including education, healthcare, culture and social policy, physical culture and sport, mass media) has been a priority of Russia’s social policy for the past several years. However, there has been no significant progress achieved in dealing with this issue, as evidenced by the fact that the need for such involvement has been repeatedly underlined in the speech of the President of Russian Federation addressed to the Federal Assembly (2013-2015). According to statistics, the volume of subsidiaries allocated to private organizations in the social sphere amounted to only 40 billion rubles in 2015 or 1.6% of the total funds allocated to this area in the federal budget. In comparison with 2013, it decreased by almost 15%.
The article presents the results of a research of socioeconomic mechanisms of involving NPOs in providing services in the social sphere. This article considers more specifically the level of real functioning of these mechanisms in the subjects of Russian Federation, through analyzing the indicators of amount and structure of the budget allocations to NPOs. These mechanisms are analyzed on the federal and regional levels through the scope of: a) the rights (and the duties) of the state (municipal) authorities to involve NPOs in providing social services at the expenses of budget funds; b) the procedures of service providers selection; c) the method (tool) of NPOs budgeting.
The article specifies deficiencies of these mechanisms that determine obstacles to a wider involvement of NPOs in providing social services. One of these obstacles is the low "status" of the services provided by NPOs. Today, they are often not formally related to the state (municipal) services ensuring the realization of social guarantees.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.