Траектории социальной и профессиональной адаптации выпускников детских домов в России (обзор исследовательского отчета)
This work sanctifies the features of social adaptation of two specific groups of students: students workers and foreign students. The authors distinguish these two concepts, and consider both common and different features of the process of social adaptation in Russian universities.
This paper aims at answering one central question: why there is considerable demand for the labor of migrants in Russian rural communities in spite of widespread anti-migrant attitudes and the absence of significant differences between costs of migrant labor and local labor? It is argued that disintegration of Soviet state-farm-based and industry-based communities and spread of dacha estates in 1990s resulted in emergence of certain emigrant niches (forestry and construction industries, agriculture, and communal services) in the rural North-Western Russia by the beginning of 2000s. Network organization of migration (D. Massey), integration of migrant community into local rural community, and absence of secure labor opportunities outside migrant community create relationships of enforceable trust (A. Portes) which provide incentives for migrants to follow certain labor ethics and transform them into more disciplined occupants of non-prestigious job positions, than local under-class people. Mechanisms of immigrant niche formation (R. Waldinger) and negative labeling close certain segment of unskilled labor market for local population.
An analysis of data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey of the Russian population's adaptation to the changes of the post-Soviet period (1994-2009) shows that beneath the surface of stability there is a sense of unease about the future, and especially of the ability of large sections of the population to improve their conditions of life.
The author focuses her attention on the analysis of the general and the particular in the adaptation of specialists on the basis of the data collected in Russia by the NRI HSE in the course of monitoring the population’s economic situation and health (RLMS-HSE), comprising a vast body of classified information on the changes in the conditions and quality of life of the Russian people.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.