Эволюция концепта «честь» во французской средневековой картине мира
The article studies the concept of "honor" in the French language consciousness. Analysis has shown that this concept is characterized by the changeof its content. It is noted that the change of features is due to the change of moral and ethical attitudes in medieval society. The author arrives at the conclusion of the development of the concept as a historical and cultural entity.
In the contemporary world where social media became one of the key sources of information about offline reality, a rally can be performed without even leaving your house. That is why the discussion participants and the audience reflect on the problem of ‘authenticity' of the virtual reality and political actions it provides. The users ponder the question whether virtual activism is relevant, what conditions make virtual political action ‘real' and ‘accomplished', i.e. they try to define the status of virtual reality and the boundaries between the ‘real' and the ‘virtual', the ‘original idea' (in E. Goffman's words) and the ‘falsifi cation'. This reframing results in a redef inition of what activists, city inhabitants and lawenforcementbodies considerto be a ‘political action'. The article considers how the perceptions of social media activism change and to what conflicts those changes can lead.
The article starts with considering theoretical problems of the concept of the Other that points to the out-group in dialogical (co)relation with which the identity of the Self is constructed. This concept describes a fundamental and manifold phenomena that needs to be specified and classified. The author argues that a solution of theoretical issues about the figure of the Other lays in the field of empirical research. In particular, the issue of “significance” of the Other for constituting the Self could be decided only on the basis of systematic study of social practices that essentially rely on (co)relation with particular out-groups. Political rhetoric could be a good field for study of symbolic functions of the Other and factors that determine its significance.
Shared representations of the Other are not only an important element of identity construction but also an instrument of the symbolic politics, i.e. public activity aimed at production and dissemination / intrusion of competing visions of social reality. The article demonstrates how a study of patterns of representation of particular macro political communities allow to assess their relative “significance”. Basing on theoretical insights from the literature the author proposes a research method that includes manual coding of the frames of representation of the Other in the context of legitimization of political course with subsequent counting of their frequency added by discourse analysis of each group of frames. This method is tried on the case of comparative analysis of frames of representation of the American and Chinese Others in the rhetoric of the presidents of the Russian Federation (from 2000 to 2015).
The paper is focused on the study of reaction of italian literature critics on the publication of the Boris Pasternak's novel "Doctor Jivago". The analysys of the book ""Doctor Jivago", Pasternak, 1958, Italy" (published in Russian language in "Reka vremen", 2012, in Moscow) is given. The papers of italian writers, critics and historians of literature, who reacted immediately upon the publication of the novel (A. Moravia, I. Calvino, F.Fortini, C. Cassola, C. Salinari ecc.) are studied and analised.
In the article the patterns of the realization of emotional utterances in dialogic and monologic speech are described. The author pays special attention to the characteristic features of the speech of a speaker feeling psychic tension and to the compositional-pragmatic peculiarities of dialogic and monologic text.