Информационный бюллетень "Мониторинг экономики образования"
The study is devoted to employment of recent vocational graduates. The proportion of middle-school graduates in vocational enrollment has increased essentially over the past decade, which indicates that the choice of vocational trajectories, on average, is now made at lower age. It was established based on the Monitoring of Education Markets and Organizations that on average 44 percent of students combined work and study in 2010–2015. Vocational students mostly combine and work and study because of financial constraints, their study-work rarely being related to their major. Later on, when making a transition from education to the labor market, vocational graduates have to accept one of the first job offers as they cannot afford a longer job search. The second part of the study draws upon the findings from the 2010–2015 sampling survey of graduate employment administered by the Federal State Statistics Service (Rosstat). It is shown that combining work and study has positive effects on employability of graduates as well as on the size of their starting salaries. In addition, self-funded students and those who combine study with major-related work are more likely to get employed in their field of study after graduation. Education-job mismatch among graduates is found to entail income “penalties”.
The paper proposed approaches how to implement effective contract with teachers in vocational education and training organizations in modern conditions. It includes ideas how to distribute the incentive part of education organization’s budget and how to determine performance indicators. The article is based on the results of the analysis of normative-legal acts of the federal and regional governments and educational organizations, on the results of monitoring statistics, as well as on the results of interviews with heads of colleges and focus groups with teachers.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.