Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics
Developments in methodologies, agglomeration, and a range of applied issues have characterized recent advances in regional and urban studies. Volume 5 concentrates on these developments while treating traditional subjects such as housing, the costs and benefits of cities, and policy issues beyond regional inequalities. Contributors make a habit of combining theory and empirics in each chapter, guiding research amid a trend in applied economics towards structural and quasi-experimental approaches. Clearly distinguished from the New Economic Geography covered by Volume 4, these articles feature an international approach that positions recent advances within the discipline of economics and society at large.
This chapter surveys recent developments in agglomeration theory within a unifying framework. We highlight how locational fundamentals, agglomeration economies, the spatial sorting of heterogeneous agents, and selection effects affect the size, productivity, composition, and inequality of cities, as well as their size distribution in the urban system.
The current lack of a unified indicators system to evaluate the innovation activity at the rigional level makes it nessesary to develop methodology for assessing the innovative capacity of the region. It should include appoaches related to the formal and substantive analysis to identify the factors that influence the innovative capacity of the region, as well as expert evaluation to rank the factors identified.
In article the system of indicators of an estimation of use of social and economic potential of region, approaches to its forecasting and maintenance of unity of received estimations are considered.
Labor productivity is the most important factor in the economic growth of the region. Traditional production functions assess the contribution of labor resources to three-fourths of the total one. But today there are new factors, the inclusion of which in the model is necessary, since they determine the key forces of economic development, identify the direction of regional policy.
Economic growth, according to neoclassical theory and the theory of endogenous growth, is influenced by labor resources: population density, quality of labor, the level of employment, investment in human capital, labor productivity. The role of human capital in the models of endogenous growth is considered at two angles: through the ability to generate knowledge and innovative development and as an independent factor - the accumulation of human capital in the region is the basis of economic growth.
The article analyzes classical and modern approaches to assessing the impact of labor resources on economic growth, shows the role played by production functions in such approaches. The characteristic of the main trends of the economic growth of the Russian regions is given, the analysis of development of labor resources and efficiency of their use is made. Production functions such as the Cobb-Douglas type are constructed for the Russian regions, showing the contribution of labor and capital to economic growth, and the statistical significance of these factors is determined. The study was conducted for 83 regions of Russia for the period from 1995 to 2015.
The study will identify the main trends of the impact of the labor force to economic growth, to form the main conclusions for economic policy in the regions of Russia.
The article discusses the development of agglomerations as "points of growth" as applied to the modern economy of Russia, analyzes approaches to the management of the process of agglomeration growth. SWOT-analysis was carried out in the formation of agglomerations in the Russian Federation. It is shown that the state encourage the development of agglomerations can be implemented within the overall strategy of spatial and economic development of the country by creating objects of the innovation economy, improve regional cohesion and quality of life, infrastructure development.
The general region socio-economical developement estimation approach is based on the agregation of diffeerent indices into one number. This approach leads to the loss of information, because highly economically developed regions are mixed with the poorly developed regions which live only due to subsidies. The new complex-valued index is proposed in the article. The usage of the index allows to evaluate the regions' developement from two separated sides: the social developement and economical developement. The simple way of such a complex-valued indices is proposed in the article.
The present investigation considers phenomenon of tourism cluster as a theoretical model of region tourism complex administration. Basing on authors’ approach to theoretical analysis, deep investigation of the concept “tourism cluster” was realized. Following the results of the analysis mentioned, we described a number of theoretical approaches to the category of tourism cluster. All the approaches mentioned were presented in two different ways: static and dynamic ones. The dynamic model provided a general view on historical development of the category “tourism cluster” in the scope of economic theory.
Basing on complex analysis results, we created our own “system and agglomeration” approach to the concept of “tourism cluster”. The approach mentioned was structured as follows: authors’ interpretation of the category “tourism cluster”, feature-based table, tourism cluster graphical model, authors’ methodology of tourism cluster identification and complex analysis of this type system.
New methodology was tested on the case of Perm krai.
The set of theoretical and practical innovations suggested in the present research is considered as universal one and it could be used in the practice of other regions administration. The present monograph could be recommended to the specialists working in the sphere of public administration ( specially to those of them who is responsible for tourism policy); to students of university programs related with tourism , economics, public administration and to all of those who are interested in the sphere of special development and tourism development in the Russian Federation.