Ein Verstaendniss der komplexen Entwicklungsprozesse in der deutschen Wirtschaft setzt ein umfassendes Verstehen des ganzen soziooekonomischen deutscjen Modells voraus. Gebildet unter dem Einfluss der urspruenglichen humanistischen Ideen der deutschen Neoliberalen der Mitte des 20. Jahrhunderts, hat das Modell sich alle Merkmale der historischen Erfahrung angeeignet, um sich dann, nach einer reihe von wesentlichen adaptiven Veraenderungen, bis heite weiter zu entwickeln.
Specific german banking system is part of social market economy model. As inner and external conditions are changing, it has to adjust. The financial crisis of 2008, european debt crisis and transforming european financial architecture are recent and current challenges.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.