Civil Society, Chinese Style: The Rise of the Nonprofit Sector in Post-Mao China
Description of the Voluntary Nonprofit Sector in contemporary China. Counting unregistered grassroots associations, China now has the second largest Voluntary Nonprofit Sector (VNPS) in the world, after the USA. The US has a much higher density of nonprofits, especially grassroots associations, but China's population is over four times as large. Much of the article describes the difficulties that nonprofits in China have in registering with the central government, and alternative pathways they use to gain some recognition when government registration is delayed or refused, which is common. Without such registration, All Chinese nonprofits are technically illegal, and cannot own or rent an office or building, have a bank account, hire staff, etc. Tax exemption even for properly registered nonprofits is rare. Nearly all national associations are government controlled, but unregistered local, all-volunteer (grassroots) associations are relatively free. The latter constitute an estimated 95% of the VNPS in China.
Palgrave Handbook of Volunteering, Civic Participation, and Nonprofit Associations.
Today in Russia a number of initiatives to involve citizens in the volunteer activities of NGOs at the federal level exist. One of the most striking examples is sports volunteering – the Olympic volunteer movement and the Sochi 2014 Volunteer Training Centers. Nine years before the 2014 Sochi Winter Olympic Games, Volunteer Training Centers were installed as nonprofit organizations. Their structure was transformed into the Association of Volunteer Centers of Russia. In recent years, Russia has hosted several major international events that have all involved volunteers. To improve programs for working with volunteers and to increase the number of volunteers and the quality of their work, it is necessary to have information about the motivation and expectations of volunteers, the result of their work, and how they use their volunteer experience. The program initiated to train and educate the volunteers for the 2014 Sochi Olympic Games has turned out to be very useful. The program has measures to support and motivate volunteers of the Olympic and Paralympic Games.
The full text of the UN Satellite Account on Nonprofit and Related Institutions and Volunteer Work, developed by the Johns Hopkins Center for Civil Society Studies in cooperation with the United Nations Statistical Division and an international team of statistical experts. This handbook updates and expands the 2002 UN Handbook on Nonprofit Institutions in the System of National Accounts to embrace the larger “Third Sector,” including nonprofit, social economy, and civil society institutions, as well as volunteer work. It calls on national statistical offices to prepare regular “satellite accounts” on this set of institutions and activities and provides a standard set of guidelines for doing so as part of existing official economic data-gathering and reporting. Published in August 2018 by the United Nations Statistics Division.
The paper focuses on the role of family in forming the consistency of vol-unteering traditions in contemporary Russia. The paper investigated the correlation between parental volunteering and the current volunteering of their children. International studies indicate that family impact on chil-dren’s attitude towards volunteering is a significant channel of intergenera-tional transmission of prosocial behavioral patterns. One of the viewpoints that draws on the social learning theory (A. Bandura), posits that children model their prosocial behavior, such as volunteering, on the direct example of their parents. Another viewpoint pertaining to the resource theory links the transmission of volunteerism with the transmission of parental social status. Social status transmission can be accompanied by normative pres-sure since a higher socio-economic status is associated with unpaid vol-untary contribution for the benefit of society. The key hypothesis of the research proposes that in Russia, where volunteerism still has not taken root as a sociocultural norm and is not associated with the transmission of social status, the transmission of volunteerism is mostly due to direct fam-ily influence and is particularly due to the influence of parental volunteer-ing. The paper presents the results of the All-Russia Representative Survey, which confirm the above hypothesis. Using a linear probability model and the logit model, we show that in Russia, active parental volunteering is likely to be strongly and significantly associated with the respondents’ cur-rent volunteering. The results demonstrate stability with the change of the model specification and a set of control variables. The paper has important practical implications for nonprofit organizations on how to engage vol-unteers of different generations by developing family volunteer programs. Such programs could facilitate early motivation of children to volunteer through direct observation and modeling of parental prosocial behavior.
The Global Historical and Contemporary Impacts of Voluntary Membership Associations on Human Societies
Purpose – This paper explores the factors that are associated with a capacity of non-profits to develop social innovations. The study aims to examine factors in the Russian national context with weak non-profit sector with an ambiguous governmental policy toward the sector.
Design/methodology/approach – The study is based on survey data (n=850 NPOs, 2015, Russia). The paper analyses the likelihood of a non-profit to introduce social innovations due to external framework and organisational factors. Regression analysis was applied in the study.
The study is based on a new sampling approach and examines non-profits as producers of social innovations, but not cases of social innovations per se.
Findings – The results demonstrate that the capacity of an NPO to develop social innovations is explained by the following enabling factors: cross-boundary collaborative relations, volunteer involvement, and diversity of the revenue structure. Composition of innovative sub-sector, opportunities and chances of getting into this group are explicitly determined and regulated by the current governmental policy towards the sector. That is that large and established non-profits are more likely to be innovative in Russia, unlike expected grass-roots.
Originality/value – The paper applies a theoretical framework to analyse the social innovation concept in a non-Western context with weak civil society and an influential government. From this perspective the results present empirical quantitative verification of the determinants of social innovation capacity of NPOs. The paper is among the first to apply a reverse sampling principle and examine social innovations via NPOs as producers. The paper produced, for the first time, an empirical description of the nature of innovative activity by NPOs and an estimation of the extent of this activity in Russia.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.