Biography of D. Laynez (1512-1565), the 2nd general of the Society of Jesus
The present article provides an interesting example of how Christian discussions of the abolition of circumcision – originally developed as part of the process of Christian emancipation from the Old Testament law – became revitalized in Christian-Muslim polemic in the medieval Middle East. The chapter on the abolition of circumcision from the comprehensive ‘Nestorian’ encyclopedic work of the mid-10th–early 11th century entitled Kitāb al-Maǧdal (‘The Tower’) is edited and translated in full. The edition of the Arabic text is based on two manuscripts: Paris, BnF Ar. 190 and Cambridge University Library Add. 3163 (=3293).
The results of cross-cultural research of implicit theories of innovativeness among students and teachers, representatives of three ethnocultural groups: Russians, the people of the North Caucasus (Chechens and Ingushs) and Tuvinians (N=804) are presented. Intergroup differences in implicit theories of innovativeness are revealed: the ‘individual’ theories of innovativeness prevail among Russians and among the students, the ‘social’ theories of innovativeness are more expressed among respondents from the North Caucasus, Tuva and among the teachers. Using the structural equations modeling the universal model of values impact on implicit theories of innovativeness and attitudes towards innovations is constructed. Values of the Openness to changes and individual theories of innovativeness promote the positive relation to innovations. Results of research have shown that implicit theories of innovativeness differ in different cultures, and values make different impact on the attitudes towards innovations and innovative experience in different cultures.