Концепция системы мониторинга и прогнозирования научно-технического прогресса в энергетике
The issue of energy has been one of the reasons behind the creation of the G7 mechanism and with later added climate change problem, it remains high on the G8 agenda. The major powers of the West needed to coordinate their efforts in order to confront the new challenges: the need to ensure security of energy supply, introduce energy saving and energy efficient technologies and make sure that leading industrial countries can afford proper economic development with the adequate and unhampered energy supply. The global energy system has come through three major stages, with the last system structure still being in the making – with all the stakeholders, namely producer, consumer and transit states, big transnational energy corporations and national energy companies, still going through grand reshuffle and redistribution of “decision-making vs. accepting the rules of the games” roles. The G8 in general follows the suit along the lines of changes introduced within the global energy architecture fluctuations. As for the club’s activities, there is a way to provisionally single out five phases in the G7/G8 energy activities. During the times of the two energy crises – 1970s – early 1980s energy security issues took a prominent place on the G7 agenda. Further on during the period of much lower prices and sustainable excess of supply over demand this issue became second rate and was mentioned only within the environmental context. End of 1980s – early 1990s, after the demise of the Soviet Union and the socialist block falling apart the main focus of the G7 lead178 Part III. Critical cCase sStudies ers was shifted to the problems of nuclear security (not only as an environmental issue, especially after Chernobyl AES accident of 1986, but also in the light of growing risks of proliferation of nuclear materials and technologies. After 2000 energy security in its own right recaptured the attention of the G8 countries, with the so popular climate change issue being not only ecological, economic and political issue, but also intensified to a certain extent a PR and market-oriented reaction of the hydrocarbon consuming actors to the sky-rocketed oil prices. The fifth phase is still to be introduced and developed by the G8+ participants, since the current global financial and economic crisis has brought its own differentials into the process.
The paper examines the main measures of internal and foreign policies of Argentina and Brazil connected with SDG (sustainable development goals) in energy sector and agriculture. The authors provide the short characteristics of the current trends of foreign policies of both countries and then analyze the case studies of the impact of the concept of sustainable development on the internal policies of Brazil and Argentina. As a conclusion the authors name some outcomes about the correspondence of the agenda of Latin American leading countries to SDGs in the spheres of energy, tourism and agriculture.
The energy sector of Russia is one of the most potent in the world - it is the second in extraction of oil and gas, the third for total output of fuel and energy resources. While exporting nearly 45% of its total production of energy resources, Russia produces more energy per capita than most other countries - 5 times higher the global average and 3 times higher than the average level for OECD countries. The energy sector of Siberia represents the crucial part of the country's energy sector. Over decades, the energy resources of the region massively contributed to the Russian federal budget and brought in a major part of hard currency from export trade. In the current conditions of existing geopolitical challenges and expected global demand for energy resources, it is much more of a priority for Russia not to raise the output of fuel and energy resources but to improve the overall quality and reliability of the whole energy supply system, increase the depth of mineral fuel, including solid fuel and waste recycling.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.