Культура богатства и особенности ее формирования в современной России
The collection of articles covers a perspective of history of Russian entrepreneurship. The main subject of articles - factors of formation of ideas of property and business in Russia XVII-XX centuries.
In Old Belief there was a new concept of property with orientation to function of providing community. The most important in system of ideas of Old Believers of various soglasiya of property became, that businessmen conservatives, as well as Protestants, were sure: they aren't full and undivided owners. But Russian "God's entrusted on management of property", unlike Protestants, didn't receive a manor directly from the Lord.
n system of confessional and economic values, institutes and installations a staroveriya synthesis of traditions of an orthodox civilization and post-traditional society was carried out. Mentality of Old Belief owners and economic ethic showed basic possibility of development of society out of the western model of a property perception, historical reality of modernization on the basis of the Russian orthodox values developing in Old Belief and deformed in the Russian society in national scales by transformations of Peter I and his followers.
The edition represents the collection of articles written on the basis of reports at the scientific conference "320 anniversary of the Vygovsky convent and modern problems of Old Belief" which was taking place on November 3-4, 2014 in Daugavpils, Latvia. The collection is devoted to history of the largest center of Old Belief of the first half-fault of the 18th century - Vygovsky convent, and also economic history of Latvian Old Belivers.
The research is devoted to confessional-ethical factors of Old Believers entrepreneurship in Russia at the end of 17th 19th centuries. In the pioneer study are identified and analyzed confessional values, moral institutions and aims of Old Believers, which advanced their effective entrepreneurship (devotion to labor, notion of property, entrepreneurship and etc.) Is scrutinized the formed ethics of Old Believers economic activity. Conclusion is done about the transformation of Old Belief to a confessional-economical community, which development represented a non-etatist modernization alternative to the state one.
In the article is analyzed the use of corruption by the old believers in Russia in the 18 – first part of the 19th century to counteract the repressive tendencies of the state politics towards the old belief, to preserve and strengthen the old believers communities. The author makes a conclusion on the meditative character of such a defensive-corruption system, which was salving the negative sides of the state politics and was ensuring further development of old believers entrepreneurship.
Yu.A. Petrov – the scientist with a world name and big scientific authority, the author more than 200 articles and monographs. He directed several very significant scientific projects, acted as the editor-in-chief and the organizer of preparation of a number of encyclopedias, collective monographs and collections of articles. Through all creativity of Yu.A. Petrov there passed the "financial" subject, history of the "Moscow" banks of the second half of the 19th century Besides, under its edition and with its participation monumental works on history of the State bank of Russia were published. An important subject of works of Petrov – history of the Russian businessmen. He pays much attention in the creativity to relationship of businessmen and the authoriry.
The scientific almanac contains articles on various problems of history of Old Belief. In articles political, economic problems of history of Old belief, and also evolution of culture of Old Belief community are analyzed. The almanac includes historiographic reviews and information on scientific actions.
The first business interest associations in Russia in 19th c. aroused on Old Belief confessional base and gained high economic effectiveness. Old Believers communities coordinated economic activities of hundreds and thousand the large and small enterprises belonging formally to their members. All three sectors of entrepreneurs, managers and workers formed this mix association. Members of association acted in the industry, trade, but also in agriculture. Top management of such associations was carried out by the largest businessmen making the Council of trustees accountable to a community. Confessional links were used as a network to support goods flow. The whole branches was organized as a common network where businesses of the Old Believers had differentiation in their functions / with some of them purchasing raw materials, others processing them, and still others engaging in retail and wholesale trade. All of the components of this network were under control of the Old Believer merchants of the same denomination. At the initial stage of the industrialization business associations of the Old Believers played an important part in organizational, economic and technical modernization of Russia’s trade and industry sectors.
The factors of territorial placement of the Old Believe centers in late 18th - to the first half of the 19th century, moved from the periphery to Moscow and Petersburg, the largest commerce and industry enclaves of the European Russia come to light in the article. Under the influence of social cultural tradition and the spiritual concept released from etatism "Moscow – the Third Rome" Moscow became the main confessional center of leading denominations.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.