Context, Process and gender in Entrepreneurship
The volume deals with the current frontier research in entrepreneurship theory in Europe on contextual and processual specifics of entrepreneurial practice
The paper deals with differences in entrepreneurial activity across the so-called transitional economies of CEE and CIS using some GEM data to establish a typology of entrepreneurial activity in differing contexts
The literature suggests that interpersonal trust is essential for building effective entrepreneurial networks. According to the 2011 World Values Survey and recent national surveys, more than 60% of Russians believe that caution is warranted when dealing with others. Low levels of social trust may affect entrepreneurs’ readiness to build networks based on trust, which is defined as a psychological state comprising a willingness to act based upon positive expectations of other person’s intentions or behaviour. This paper addresses the role trust plays in the building of business networks by Russian entrepreneurs. It also considers how trust between network participants changes over time. The findings are based on qualitative data gathered from in-depth interviews of 59 entrepreneurs from traditional, low, medium, and highly innovative SMEs. The paper identifies and compares the mechanisms that Russian entrepreneurs representing SMEs in four innovativeness categories use to build trust in their business networks, especially in terms of the cognitive, affective, and behavioural aspects of trust. It also highlights differences in how entrepreneurs representing SMEs in various innovativeness categories use mechanisms of trust to build and govern their business networks. The derived understanding can help entrepreneurial network participants be more effective, especially in terms of avoiding mistakes associated with the underestimation of the importance of trust in building long-term business relations.
The study of business law is an essential requirement for a business lawyer, businesspersons (including managers and entrepreneurs), as well as for academics. Consider this – what would you do if (1) your client or company has a legal issue in Russia, or (2) you want to tell your students about recent law developments in business transactions in Russia, or (3) you are simply interested in learning about the new Russian law system regulating business relations and conditions of the market economy? Whom would you ask, or where would you look up first? Answers may vary according to the situation: one could hire a law firm, call a friend, or just “google” it. However, it would be much more convenient to have something to use that is reliable, concise, and comprehensive. The absence of a helpful resource in English encouraged our team mainly of professors, PhD students, and graduates of the Lomonosov Moscow State University Business Law Department to prepare this book, which tells about the regulation of business in Russia. However, one should not consider that its main purpose is to simply retell the content of legal acts related to the regulation of business relations. Our team strove to resolve a much more complex problem: on the one hand, to show in what way particular areas of business are regulated, and on the other, to define the fundamentals of business regulation in Russia.
This article seeks to undertake a critical assessment of the changing position of public science in the entrepreneurial ecosystem of the countries on the periphery of European research. These countries are driven by new innovation paradigm based on entrepreneurship, which are implemented within the European Smart specialization strategy (S3). This article argues that S3 is widely implemented in the cohesion countries and, while it provides substantial resources for science, technology, and innovation, it fails to provide sustainability in the public research sector. This has direct implications for policies concerning innovation and entrepreneurial ecosystems. In order to prove the thesis, the article provides theoretical argumentation for emergence of a new innovation paradigm, driven by the rise of the entrepreneurial ecosystem, its incorporation into S3, and a consequent retreat of science policy in favor of entrepreneurial policy. The empirical analysis is focused on the funding trends seen in the business and public research sectors over the last decade (2008–2017), which have clearly shown that S3 has not contributed, despite expectations, to an increase in public expenditure for science. This signifies S3's neglect of public research within entrepreneurial ecosystems and challenges the ability of S3 to reduce wide disparities in research and innovation performance across the European Union. This ultimately endangers the innovation potential of the entrepreneurial ecosystem itself.
The innovative potential of Russian small business is not completely realized that is indicated by the comparison of its innovative activity with small entrepreneurship in many developed countries. The development of measures to support and stimulate the activity of small enterprises in Russia is attended, and the priority task is the search for mechanism to increase the participation of small enterprises in innovative transformations of economy. The aim of this research is to analyze development factors of small enterprises innovative activity in Russia considering substantial regional differentiation.
The conducted analysis was based on the data of Federal State Statistics Service representing the results of the survey of small enterprises innovative activity as well as the characteristics of socio-economic development of Russian regions. Multivariate statistical methods were applied. Principal component analysis was used to estimate the level of the development of small enterprises innovative activity. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression with further comparison of its results measured the influence of socio-economic characteristics of Russian regions on the level of small enterprises innovative activity.
Among tested socio-economic characteristics of Russian regions the expenditures on technological innovations of large and medium-sized enterprises, the indicators of population's educational potential, the level of ICT development and the population's standard of living had a significant impact on the level of small enterprises innovative activity development. The comparative analysis of the results of applied logistic regression and discriminant analysis showed high degree of their consistency and indicates appropriate predictive probabilities of the models.
The innovative activity of small enterprises in Russia is influenced by the complex factors characterizing scientific, technological and socio-economic regional development. The analysis allowed revealing key factors of small enterprises innovative activity growth and showed the necessity of targeted support of small business innovative activity considering regional features.
The paper analyses effects of corruption on innovative activities. It argues that despite corruption is traditionally considered as a highly negative phenomenon, it may have a positive effect on innovation. This position allows to explain why developing countries with a high level of corruption sometimes demonstrate better indicators of innovative activity in particular areas than less corrupt advanced economies. However, our study shows that this positive relationship exists because of the prevalence of more serious problems associated with the persistent presence of the state in various spheres of economy. Moreover, we argue that not all innovations are in fact socially desirable, and those that are an outcome of rent-seeking behavior and incorporation of private interests in the legal system often negatively affect market mechanisms and undermine sustainable economic performance.
These proceedings represent the work of contributors to the 13th European Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship (ECIE 2018), hosted this year by the University of Aveiro, Portugal on 20-21 September 2018. The Conference Chair is Professor Carlos Costa and the Programme Co-Chairs are Dr. Manuel Au-Yong-Oliveira and Dr. Marlene Paula Castro Amorim. ECIE is a well-established event on the academic research calendar and now in its 13th year the key aim remains the opportunity for participants to share ideas and meet the people who hold them. The scope of papers will ensure an interesting two days. The subjects covered illustrate the wide range of topics that fall into this important and ever-growing area of research.
Universities have become both increasingly entrepreneurial and international over the past few decades. We still, however, know little about the relationship between the two trends. This paper investigates the effect of international exposure of university faculty members on university entrepreneurial culture.
Using a specially constructed dataset of the entrepreneurial activities of 507 computer science faculty members—among whom 138 are returnees—from 21 research-intensive universities in China during 2007–2017, the study empirically investigates the relationship between foreign experience and academic entrepreneurial activity back home. We control for characteristics of the faculty member and the location of the university.
Academic tenure overseas is found to positively affect academic entrepreneurship. The length of stay abroad also affects the relationship: returnee academics with foreign Ph.D. degrees are more likely to start new businesses than returnee academics with shorter postdoc experience overseas. The economic gap between the host (foreign) and home country (China) does not have a statistically significant effect on returnee academic entrepreneurial activity.
To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to empirically investigate returnee academic entrepreneurship. It provides indications on how foreign educational background affects academics entrepreneurial activities.
Th is paper, based on the data of sample observation of population incomes and participation in social programs for the period from 2014 to 2018 prepared by the Federal State Statistics Service, evaluates the diff erences in the incomes of employees and entrepreneurs, the latter fall into ownaccount workers and employers. In this study the methods of ordinary least squares and quantile regression are employed. Th e results show that in Russia entrepreneurs’ median and average earnings are higher than employees’ ones. Th e highest positive diff erences are in the incomes of employers who earn more than own-account workers and employees respectively. Also, entrepreneurs earn more than employees during the period of economic growth as well as recession. It indicates that the positive income diff erence between entrepreneurs and employees is kept during economic slowdowns. Th is fi nding distinguishes Russia from the countries with high income per capita and a larger contribution of small and medium-sized businesses to the gross domestic product, such as the USA, Great Britain, Germany, Finland, where entrepreneurs oft en earn less than employees. Th us, the monetary reward might be a primary reason for persons to opt for entrepreneurship in Russia than in high-income economies.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.