Context, Process and gender in Entrepreneurship
The volume deals with the current frontier research in entrepreneurship theory in Europe on contextual and processual specifics of entrepreneurial practice
The paper deals with differences in entrepreneurial activity across the so-called transitional economies of CEE and CIS using some GEM data to establish a typology of entrepreneurial activity in differing contexts
Human capital theory in recent decades has become the basis for educational policy in many developed countries. Expert discussions, however, often undervalue research findings and developments related to this theory that since the 1970s have consistently enriched understanding of how human capital contributes to personal well-being and socioeconomic development of society as a whole. Educational policy lags behind these elaborations, which leads to a decline in the impact of education upon development worldwide. In the 21st century, fundamentally new trends in socioeconomic dynamics pose unprecedented challenges for educational systems around the world, including Russia. Despite the quantitative growth of money and time spent on education, performance per unit of education costs has fallen. The human potential, created by education, is facing more and more difficulties in its capitalization: economic growth is slowing down at both at the country level and globally. This situation brings to life new attempts to claim insignificance of education for economic growth and for individual success. So far, these attempts have not been very influential in educational policy, but in many countries, such arguments already serve as a backdrop for budget decisions that are detrimental for education. Educational systems need to complement practices that contribute to the development of human capital. In this regard, several theoretical elaborations that have not yet became part of the mainstream discussion on human capital, could be helpful for understanding the role of human capital in socioeconomic progress and possible ways to improve it in the short and long term.
The 7th International Conference Innovation Management, Entrepreneurship and Sustainability (IMES 2019) took place on May 30 – 31, 2019 at the University of Economics, Prague. The conference was organised by the Department of Entrepreneurship of the University of Economics, Prague, Czech Republic in cooperation with • Faculty of Management, Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia • School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University in Vaxjo, Sweden • Corvinus University of Budapest, Hungary • European Council for Small Business and Entrepreneurship (ECSB) and other partners. Sound keynote speakers – Martina Musteen (San Diego State University, USA), Ilan Alon (University of Agder, Norway), Andrew Burke (Trinity Business School, Ireland), Arnim Wiek (Arizona State University, USA), Søren Salomo (Technical University Berlin, Germany) and Roy Thurik (Erasmus University Rotterdam, Netherlands) discussed the trends in the fields of innovation management, entrepreneurship and sustainability. The conference aimed to achieve academic excellence in a regional context and to establish a platform for mutual collaboration, exchange and dissemination of ideas among researchers and professionals. These conference proceedings contain contributions of the conference participants presented during both days of the conference. Authors of papers come from 22 countries all over the world, namely from Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Bulgaria, Colombia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, India, Mexico, Paraguay, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Sweden, Switzerland, USA and Vietnam. All these contributions have successfully passed the doubleblind peer-review process.
The purpose of this paper is to show that individual ambidexterity affects performance in small project-based enterprises. This is consistent with a recent and prominent stream of research that investigates the characteristics of workers as antecedents of ambidexterity behaviors and their effect on performance. We also analyze the role of entrepreneurial intensity as an important context issue that hampers this relationship. We test our hypotheses in the context of Italian television drama series productions, which are small project-based enterprises, by analyzing the careers of 1736 project entrepreneurs who had been working in the industry from 1996 to 2010. Our results suggest that for project entrepreneurs, high diversity in work experiences positively affects the project performance. Moreover, we demonstrate that the industry tenure of project entrepreneurs lessens the main relationship, by reducing the positive effect of entrepreneurial intensity and limiting benefits of ambidextrous behaviors. Our findings allow us to add insights to the entrepreneurship research and individual level ambidexterity theory. First, we contribute to this stream of research by analyzing how the diversity of work experiences at the individual level affects project performance. In doing so, we overcome the prior literature, which limited analysis only to the project portfolio level. Second, we develop a framework that investigates the argument regarding whether and under what circumstances does individual level ambidexterity improve project performance.
This chapter elaborates on entrepreneurship in developed and developing countries and focuses on the optimization of entrepreneurial activities. Various scenarios are considered: independent functioning of the market, integration in the form of reorganization (mergers and acquisitions), integration in the form of clustering, and integration in the form of innovational networks and technological parks. The optimal structure of the integration processes and best-case scenarios for its implementation to accelerate the rate and increase the quality of economic growth are substantiated. The potential for uptake of integration processes in stimulating economic growth through entrepreneurship is determined by the level of institutionalization in an economy. In developed countries, all forms of company integration are characterized by the high level of institutionalization, which allows for their effective use for economic growth. Independent companies, mergers, and acquisitions restrain economic growth and reduce its quality, while clusters, technological parks, and innovational networks accelerate the rate of economic growth and increase its quality. In developing countries, integration processes in entrepreneurship have a different influence on economic growth and require further institutionalization
This paper investigates the persistence of self-employment in the districts of Kaliningrad, a Russian exclave, between 1925 and 2010. The area experienced a number of disruptive historical shocks during this period. This setting rules out the fact that the persistence of self-employment can be explained by the persistence of institutions and culture. Nevertheless, a high level of persistence of industry-specific self-employment rates is found. It is argued that a historical tradition of entrepreneurship created an awareness about the entrepreneurial potential of regions among the new population that was yielded after the collapse of the Soviet Union. This effect seems to be higher in regions where a specific industry was advanced in terms of technology use
The innovative potential of Russian small business is not completely realized that is indicated by the comparison of its innovative activity with small entrepreneurship in many developed countries. The development of measures to support and stimulate the activity of small enterprises in Russia is attended, and the priority task is the search for mechanism to increase the participation of small enterprises in innovative transformations of economy. The aim of this research is to analyze development factors of small enterprises innovative activity in Russia considering substantial regional differentiation.
The conducted analysis was based on the data of Federal State Statistics Service representing the results of the survey of small enterprises innovative activity as well as the characteristics of socio-economic development of Russian regions. Multivariate statistical methods were applied. Principal component analysis was used to estimate the level of the development of small enterprises innovative activity. Discriminant analysis and logistic regression with further comparison of its results measured the influence of socio-economic characteristics of Russian regions on the level of small enterprises innovative activity.
Among tested socio-economic characteristics of Russian regions the expenditures on technological innovations of large and medium-sized enterprises, the indicators of population's educational potential, the level of ICT development and the population's standard of living had a significant impact on the level of small enterprises innovative activity development. The comparative analysis of the results of applied logistic regression and discriminant analysis showed high degree of their consistency and indicates appropriate predictive probabilities of the models.
The innovative activity of small enterprises in Russia is influenced by the complex factors characterizing scientific, technological and socio-economic regional development. The analysis allowed revealing key factors of small enterprises innovative activity growth and showed the necessity of targeted support of small business innovative activity considering regional features.
The paper analyses effects of corruption on innovative activities. It argues that despite corruption is traditionally considered as a highly negative phenomenon, it may have a positive effect on innovation. This position allows to explain why developing countries with a high level of corruption sometimes demonstrate better indicators of innovative activity in particular areas than less corrupt advanced economies. However, our study shows that this positive relationship exists because of the prevalence of more serious problems associated with the persistent presence of the state in various spheres of economy. Moreover, we argue that not all innovations are in fact socially desirable, and those that are an outcome of rent-seeking behavior and incorporation of private interests in the legal system often negatively affect market mechanisms and undermine sustainable economic performance.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.