Государственная поддержка моногородов в России
Ключевые слова: государственная поддержка, эффективность, инвестиции, проекты, фискальная политика, выгоды
Large-scale financial crisis, which led to a partial or absolute suspension of the core enterprises in 2008-2009 . Violated livelihoods set towns, of which 24% is concentrated in the country's urban population . Taking into account the importance of this problem , it should be noted that the toolkit , as well as strategies and tactics of its decisions do not have sufficient economic justification. In addressing monocities closely interrelated aspects such as social policy , the prospects for development of small towns , the social responsibility of business , diversification of the economy and innovation. In the single-industry cities, which account for 14 % of total urban population of some 35 million people . According to the Institute for Regional Development 500 monotowns support required , and there are cities that are not formally come under the status of " towns" , but are in the same risk. More and more researchers devote their work problems of development company towns not solely from an economic point of view, but from a social and environmental . Need to address the development of single-industry towns in Russia is due to the following reasons : a significant proportion of company towns are not in a state of crisis (not fit the definition ); in mono , in critical condition , an increase the number of social problems; improving the quality of life in mono depends on optimizing the allocation of productive forces in Russia , the socio- economic development of its subjects. A sectoral specialization of cities had and continues to have a significant influence on the development of the world economy . Analyzing the experience of other countries , you will notice that provided a consistent and comprehensive program of action to modernize monocities possible for several years to make a breakthrough .
This paper based on extensive survey analyzes relationships between Russian companies and the state in 2006–2010. As well as company characteristics, regional differences are also taken into account. Special focus is made on changes in relations due to world crisis and differences in relations with the state between industrial companies and enterprises from service sector. Regression analysis shows that in 2009–2010 relationship was built on “model of exchange” principle and the system was quite inert: even changes in GRP and investments’ level induced by crisis do not influence the probability of receiving government support. However, it was established that when allocating support the authorities take unemployment changes into consideration, which means that social factors matter.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.