Мир в новое время: сборник материалов Одиннадцатой всероссийской научной конференции студентов, аспирантов и молодых ученых по проблемам мировой истории XVI-XXI вв.
What determines the transition of a society from one level of development to another? One of the most fundamental causes is the global technological transformations. Among all major technological breakthroughs in history the most important are the three production revolutions: 1) the Agrarian Revolution; 2) the Industrial Revolution and 3) the Scientific-Information Revolution which will transform into the Cybernetic one.
The article introduces the Theory of Production Revolutions. This is a new explanatory paradigm which is of value when analyzing causes and trends of global shifts in historical process. The article describes the course of technological transformations in history and demonstrates a possible application of the theory to explain the present and forthcoming technological changes. The authors argue that the third production revolution that started in the 1950s and which they call the Cybernetic one, in the coming decades, that is in the 2030s and 2040s, will get a new impetus and enter its final stage – the epoch of (self)controllable systems. There are given certain forecasts concerning the development in such spheres as medicine, biotechnologies and nanotechnologies in the coming decades (the 2010s – 2060s).
An attempt of research of a ratio of the theory and practice in François Guizot scientific and public work is undertaken in this article. Guizot is the central figure of the French liberalism of the first half of the XIX century. The theory and practice of this thinker synthesized liberalism and conservatism.
The author argues on expediency and mutual conditionality of evolutionary changes in the nature and in society. In the article three major factors of the evolution are allocated, namely: the accident, the factor of coincidence of circumstances and the factor of acceleration of social evolution.
The book, offered readers, conference materials placed under the same name, held in Smolensk State Pedagogical University in June 1998. Articles reflected two trends: 1.The influence of religious outlooks and mentality on policy 2. The influence of politics and political interests on religion.
Volume is devoted to a wide range of issues of history and modern foreign countries.
The article analyses the long political career and life of Mwai Kibaki, former President of Kenya.
Volume is devoted to the problems of the interaction of western and eastern societies at different times of its history.
Phenomenology, that is the description of observed phenomena, is absolutely insufficient for a profound comprehension of global processes, so one needs some explanatory theories. The present article offers such a new explanatory concept useful for analyzing causes and trends of global shifts in historical process – the theory of production revolutions. The author reveals possibilities of using this theory to explain the logic of interaction between technological macroshifts, significant changes in social structure and qualitative growth of processes' scale (globality), connections and phenomena within the World System. Much attention is paid to the interrelation between the effects of the latest (information-scientific) revolution and globalization processes. Some forecasts for the future are made basing on the theory of production revolutions
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.