How do educational systems shape educational inequalities?
Modern graduates need to work with electronic devices. On laboratory work, students conduct experiments to solve practical problems of researching real problems that arise in the design and operation of electronic devices. However, the shortage of laboratory equipment, its high cost and the shortage of laboratory assistants for maintenance and assistance in work reduces the quality of laboratory work. On the other hand, modern education is increasingly using a network resource. Virtual laboratories have their advantages, but even when carrying out a physical experiment in them, the sense of the reality of what is happening disappears. Effective solutions to the effectiveness and quality of conducting laboratory exercises can be found using a system of virtual instruments that can be accessed via the Internet or directly at the university.
The aim of the research is to show, by the example of one experimental device made on the National Instruments ELVIS platform, the advantages of a combined approach to learning - a successful combination of a virtual resource and a real physical experiment. The laboratory model described in the article is very practical for studying radio engineering devices, and it can ideologically serve as a basis for other similar developments.
The research was based on the prototype board for studying the basics of analog electronics for the NI ELVIS workstation, the cycle of laboratory work on the general technical discipline "Electronics", the results of their protection, and the results of intermediate student controls. In work methods: laboratory experiment, modeling, pedagogical testing were used.
The results of the research show that students feel the need for more knowledge about real processes and systems. This need is most evident in the direction of the preparation of bachelors of engineering and technology. They expect from a laboratory work a real physical experiment, but with the convenience of computer-processing results. A new paradigm for studying radio electronic devices based on physical experiments in a virtual instrument system gives an improvement in the quality of instruction and allows students to effectively study the circuitry of analog devices. The ideology of virtual instruments leads to more motivation for students, they get skills in working with modern measuring equipment and at the same time communication skills in a group, since the computer resource is used as a research tool, not the purpose of learning.
A physical experiment using virtual measuring instruments, accessibility and mobility of laboratory facilities, additional motivation of students are the main advantages of using the NI ELVIS hardware and software platform with a specialized breadboard model in the educational process.
It is assumed that a perfect balance between student academic achievement and university quality is beneficial both for students and higher education institutions (HEIs). Matching theory predicts the existence of perfect matching between the two groups in the absence of transaction costs associated with university enrollment. However, in this study we show cases of mismatch situations in Russia under the Unified State Exam (USE) – the standardized student admission mechanism. This research studies the reasons for this phenomenon for minimal transaction costs and the emergence of unequal access to HEIs. Based on data on Moscow high school graduates who entered university, the determinants of the mismatch between the quality of universities and applicant abilities are assessed. It is shown that although in most cases favorable matching results are established, the individual student achievement results themselves are subject to the influence of school and family characteristics. Thus, inequality of access can be formed at stages preceding HEI enrollment.
the article is devoted to the issue of provision of regional systems of higher education with public funding per students, how much the current system of distribution of public funding corresponds to demographic trends and the forecast of the number of potential students. The forecast of the population at the age group of 17-21 years showed that starting from 2019, the Russian higher education system will be subject of increased pressure from applicants. This is caused by the expiration of “demographic hole” of the 1990s. The current guarantee of financial support for higher education at the expense of public funds (at least 800 students for every 10,000 people from the age group of 17-30 years old) can be carried out until 2024 without increasing the volume of public funding. However, the implementation of this standard is provided only by reducing the age cohort of 25-30 years. The ratio of the predicted values of the number of potential applicants and the importance of demand for regional higher education systems allowed us to identify the donor regions, the deficit regions and the recipient regions. An analysis of the current distribution of public funded places between regions of Russia made it possible to identify territorial imbalances that negatively affect the ability of school graduates to receive higher education free of charge in their home region.