Encyclopedia of Theory in Psychology
The chapter describes values
The study presented in this paper is focused on the development of theoretical models of the dialogic and non-dialogic nature of the personal relationship to the Other. Based on the philosophical and psychological research of the dialogue (M. M. Bakhtin, M. Buber, J. Sartre, E. Levinas, H. J. M. Hermans, T. Maranhao, M. Puchalska-Wasyl, F . Rivetti Ваrbo, T. Zittoun), the author emphasizes the involvement of the individual in various forms of activity that, due to personal efforts, acquire a dialogical character. The “personality’s attitudes toward significances” stand out among these forms, including the relation to another significant person. The author develops an understanding of dialogue as a complete realization of the relation to the Other in the dimensions between-I-and-Other, I-in-Other, Other-in-I, and I-in-Self-with-Other. Non-dialogicity, which rarely happens to be the subject of psychological research, firstly can be defined as one of the possibilities for the formation of an attitude; secondly, as a regress of the dialogical attitude; thirdly, as a binary opposition present in the conscious plane, or “in the shade” of the dialogical dynamics of the attitude; fourthly, as a trend that conflicts with dialogicity in favour of the development of dialogue. Following the multilateral view on the genesis of dialogicity/non-dialogicity in the personality’s relation to the Other, a number of theoretical models have been developed: a model of the dialogic attitude to the significance; models of the I in the context of a dialogical attitude; the existential model of regression in the dialogicity of the I-Other relation; a model of personal prerequisites of non-dialogicity in relation to the I-Other; a model of oppositions to dialogicity in the dimensions of the I-Other relation.
The main idea of the article written in the genre of the philosophical satire is the search for an answer to the question of the possibility of theories in an age of a triumph of empiricism and positivism. Reflecting on the problems of education in the modern world, the author refers to the recently published book of Richard Pohl «Plato as a teacher. Plato’s Renaissance and Antimodernism in Germany (1890–1933)». The book tells how, while solving the tasks of a nation building and the transformation of Germany into the intellectual and cultural center of all mankind, the state educational machine of the German Empire used Plato and his doctrine of «eternal forms» for the needs of education. In addition, the book analyzes a very noteworthy phenomenon of «German neo-Platonism», which arose in the late XIX – early XX century and represented by a variety of schools – from the neo-Kantians to the circle of Stefan Gheorghe, each of which had its own concept of Plato. The author notes that Plato’s philosophy is also actualized in the modern times. But does this mean that Plato can become a «staple» for culture and a symbol of education in the current conditions? And is it possible today to restore the authentic image of Plato, or does each era re-imagines the philosopher in its own way?
The article substantiates new direction of psychological studies of the personality which is called general personology. It was developed as a response to the gap existing in psychology of personality between theory, empirical studies, cultural and hermeneutical approaches, psychotherapy and reflection and self-development of personologists and all those involved into personological process. General personology is defined as the direction in studying personality integrating cultural, fundamental (theoretical and empirical), practical personology and personology of self-fulfilment. There is introduced the symbol notion “personology pyramid”. There are given examples of research approaches that are based on synthesis of knowledge and methods from different areas of general personology. There is studied the experience of building and conducting of personological study devoted to dialogical relation of I – beloved Other, conditions of its formation and interlinks with social positioning of personality. It is substantiated on theoretical, hermeneutical and empirical levels that dialogical nature of relation, in fact, is its fulfilment in dimensions between I-and-Beloved-Other, I-in-Beloved-Other, Beloved-other-in-I, I-in-Self, activity of personality’s living through each dimension, formation of internal social resource of personality. The study results are intended for psychological consulting practice and self-cognition of the personality in the context of relation with meaningful others.
The purpose of the research is to substantiate the development of integral branch of modern psychology of personality which is defined as personology. The research stresses the need to change dominating analytical approaches to the study of personality for the synthetic approach defined as «science of synthesis». It will reflect multiple ties between different theories and consulting personality models; experience of creating a single semantic space for personality cognition; unity of theoretical, cultural and practical psychology of personality. This triple format of personology is focused on discovery and realization of self-cognition of the personality as well as personality of the personologist being the subject of hermeneutics, theoretical studies and practical activity. The research defines the subject of personology based on positions of synthesis as well as defines the foundation for integration of the personological knowledge, structure of personology, content, method and forms of interaction between cultural, fundamental and consulting psychology.
Political, social, and economic transformation is a complex historical phenomenon. It can adequately be analysed only by a multidisciplinary approach. The Handbook brings together an international team of scholars who are specialists in their respective research fields. It introduces the most important areas, theories, and methods in transformation research, with particular attention placed on the historical and comparative dimension. Although focussing on post-communist and other democratic transformations in our epoch, the Handbook therefore presents and discusses not only their problems, paths, and developments, but also deals with the antecedent 'waves', beginning with the Meiji Restoration in Japan in 1868 and its aftermath. The book is structured into six parts. Starting with basic concepts as systems, actors, and institutions (Section I), it gives an overview over major theoretical approaches and research methods (Sections II and III). The connection of theory and method with their application is essential, allowing special insights into the past and opens analytical avenues for transformation research in the future. Section (IV) provides a historically oriented description or interpretation of particular 'waves' or types of societal transformation. With a clear focus on present transformations, the contributions to Section V provide a description and discussion of the problems, structures, actors, and courses of the transformations within different spheres of (civil) society, politics, law, and economics. Finally, brief lexicographic entries in Section VI delineate research perspectives and facts about relevant issues of societal transformation. Each of the 79 contributions contains a concise list of the most important research literature.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed conference proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Finite Difference Methods, FDM 2014, held in Lozenetz, Bulgaria, in June 2014. The 36 revised full papers were carefully reviewed and selected from 62 submissions. These papers together with 12 invited papers cover topics such as finite difference finite element methods and various its applications in physics, chemistry, biology and finance.
This is a review of the last book by influential cultural geographers A.Amin and N.Thrift dedicated to the contemporary urban theory and its perspectives.