СОЦИАЛЬНАЯ ПСИХОЛОГИЯ. Учебник и практикум для академического бакалавриата
The paper proposes a cultural-historical periodisation of V. P. Zinchenko's life and activity, presenting an integral outline of his interests and his diverse contributions to contemporary science and culture. The principal aspects of V.P. Zinchenko's creative approach to science are described in comparison with encyclopaedic approach of the Renaissance era. The paper also presents a view of his original philosophic and psychological system set against the backdrop of the 20-21st century human sciences, and its more specific aspects, including his developments of the activity theory in general psychology, and his systemic psychological theories describing the interactions between image and action, intelligence and emotion, consciousness and reflexive activity, creativity and intuition. V.P. Zinchenko's scientific works can be characterised as a union of fundamental research and its practical implementation in the fields of systems engineering and management, ergonomics and design, pedagogy and education, literature and culture.
It analyses polysemantic terms the subject, the personality, the selfhood and which form sincrets for example subjectivity of selfhood and etc. It reconstructs interpretation of these terms by G.G. Shpet, S.L. Rubinshtein, B.M. Teplov, A.N. Leontiev, etc. It affirms that the main theme of psychological investigation is the personality. On the ontological plane we have two ways of personality: down - to the subject - to a function or to collection of functions, to subject; and up - to the selfhood - to an ideal, to the limit of self-construction, to spirituality and freedom.
The article discusses the problems and prospects for using the methodology of Digital Humanities in the historical psychological studies. The authors present the results of the search and analysis of the mentions found for the name of the outstanding psychophysiologist, psychoneurolo-gist, and psychologist Vladimir M. Bekhterev (1857-1927) in the body of texts in the Google Books system in Russian and English languages. Hypotheses are advanced regarding the high or low frequency of references. The dissemination of the scientist’s ideas in various scientific fields is analyzed in both Russian and English. The results of the mentioning frequency study on the names of Vladimir Bekhterev and Lev Vygotsky are compared to define the factors that determine the use of the name and these scientists’ ideas. The advantages and disadvantages of qualitative and quantitative analysis and interpretation of texts within the framework of digital humanities are shown.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.