ВТОРОЙ ОЦЕНОЧНЫЙ ДОКЛАД РОСГИДРОМЕТА ОБ ИЗМЕНЕНИЯХ КЛИМАТА И ИХ ПОСЛЕДСТВИЯХ НА ТЕРРИТОРИИ РОССИЙСКОЙ ФЕДЕРАЦИИ
Analysis of Climate change in Russia
Climate changes in Russia are analysed
Many environmental stimuli present a quasi-rhythmic structure at different timescales that the brain needs to decompose and integrate. Cortical oscillations have been proposed as instruments of sensory de-multiplexing, i.e., the parallel processing of different frequency streams in sensory signals. Yet their causal role in such a process has never been demonstrated. Here, we used a neural microcircuit model to address whether coupled theta–gamma oscillations, as observed in human auditory cortex, could underpin the multiscale sensory analysis of speech. We show that, in continuous speech, theta oscillations can flexibly track the syllabic rhythm and temporally organize the phoneme-level response of gamma neurons into a code that enables syllable identification. The tracking of slow speech fluctuations by theta oscillations, and its coupling to gamma-spiking activity both appeared as critical features for accurate speech encoding. These results demonstrate that cortical oscillations can be a key instrument of speech de-multiplexing, parsing, and encoding.
This overview report is based upon the scientific report for the Bering-Chukchi-Beaufort (BCB) region, which comprises parts of Canada, the United States and Russia. The scientific report describes current regional environmental conditions, global and regional drivers of change, and the human and ecological impacts of this change. It also emphasises is the diverse, inter-linked environmental, social and economic challenges that residents are already, or likely will be, experiencing from climate change and other regional and global-scale drivers. It considers the environmental and socio-economic changes to which inhabitants in the region are and will be adapting to. Finally, it provides a number of observations intended to help inform decision makers about how they might help their communities adapt to future changes.
This report serves as a guide to the agricultural policy shifts made by the Government of Jamaica that would be desirable in the context of the changing role of agriculture. It focuses on the central question of how to create within the context of fiscal austerity an enabling framework for agriculture that results in a more competitive sector, with prospects for growth and poverty alleviation in the future. The three major studies underpinning this report are an Agricultural Sector Support Analysis, a Climat Change Report and an Agricultural Taxation Report. This report synthesizes and expands on the elements in these studies that are most relevant to the policy choices facing the government in the context of its tax reform initiative.
Global climate change is a key challenge to the global economy in the twenty-first century. To address it properly, a combination of mitigation and adaptation strategies is required. Although the responsibility for adaptation lies primarily with national governments (though, even here, poorer countries need international support), mitigation is one of the key fields of international cooperation. There is little chance that the fundamental objective of stopping global temperatures from rising more than 2 °С can be reached without a stable and comprehensive global governance system. The current international climate change regime based on the Paris Agreement is insufficient to prevent catastrophic climate change. Deeper cooperation between leading economies is especially necessary, including among those that are now reluctant to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Water Conservation and Wastewater Treatment in BRICS Nations: Technologies, Challenges, Strategies, and Policies addresses issues of water resources—including combined sewer system overflows—assessing effects on water quality standards and protecting surface and sub-surface potable water from the intrusion of saline water due to sea level rise. The book's chapters incorporate both policies and practical aspects and serve as baseline information for future adaption plans in BRICS nations. Users will find detailed important information that is ideal for policymakers, water management specialists, BRICS nation undergraduate or university students, teachers and researchers.
The European Union’s development vector will largely depend on Germany, the engine of the European economy and integration. Europe in general and Germany in particular are at a crossroads. Strained relations with the United States, the migration crisis, the rise of populism, climate change, and China’s economic boom push relations with Russia into the background. How do young Germans see the future of Europe and their own country? To answer this question, it is essential to take a look at the entire spectrum of political trends in Germany and to analyze which of them evoke the greatest response from the younger generation.
Global climate change entails both threats and new opportunities for social and economic development of the Altai-Sayan Ecoregion. Taking into account the scale of climate change forecasted for the ASE, the importance of Altai-Sayan as one of the world’s biodiversity hotspots as well as an important role assigned to the region in strategic plans of Russia’s economic development, the need to develop regional measures of adaptation to both negative and positive impacts of climate change raises no doubts. In particular, climate change is referred to as a new determinant of development and a security challenge to Russia and its regions in such strategic documents as: the RF Environmental Doctrine (2002), the RF Long-Term Social and Economic Development Concept for the period to 2020 (2008), the RF Forest Complex Development Strategy for the period to 2020 (2008), the RF National Security Strategy for the period to 2020 (2009), the RF Climate Doctrine (2009), the Energy Strategy of Russia for the period to 2030 (2009), the RF Food Safety Doctrine (2010) and the Strategy of Social and Economic Development of Siberia for the period to 2020 (2010).
Contemporary challenges and threats to sustainable development including safe use of transboundary resources of rivers and Arctic seas in condition of climate change are connected with cumulative impact of numerous factors. Ongoing environmental changes have transboundary nature and will have significant impact in international scale. In case of overlapping of factors of impact their nature and synergetic effect, mechanisms of their interrelated influence and possible negative consequences for global economy, environment and human health are not adequately known. Among the main obstacles to mitigation of climate change impact on the state of big river basins in the Arctic and Arctic seas are: the lack of critically important information and data, absence of modern concepts of climate change mitigation measures connected with impact on Arctic seas, uncoordinated and inefficient regulation and management, absence of unified interstate tools of marine spatial planning. The article contains the analysis of risks and global consequences of the ongoing climate change for water resources; characteristic of priority issues and their underlying root causes. It also contains the results of the analysis of risks connected with melting of permafrost and increase in thermal coast erosion, assessment of the role of transboundary cooperation of water issues for sustainable regional development. The authors also propose some measures for addressing the above issues based on the Strategic Programme of Actions on the Protection of the Russian Part of the Arctic developed by the Ministry of Economic Development of Russia.
One of the key advances in genome assembly that has led to a significant improvement in contig lengths has been improved algorithms for utilization of paired reads (mate-pairs). While in most assemblers, mate-pair information is used in a post-processing step, the recently proposed Paired de Bruijn Graph (PDBG) approach incorporates the mate-pair information directly in the assembly graph structure. However, the PDBG approach faces difficulties when the variation in the insert sizes is high. To address this problem, we first transform mate-pairs into edge-pair histograms that allow one to better estimate the distance between edges in the assembly graph that represent regions linked by multiple mate-pairs. Further, we combine the ideas of mate-pair transformation and PDBGs to construct new data structures for genome assembly: pathsets and pathset graphs.