Энергетические субсидии в современном мире. Страны «Группы двадцати»
The paper presents an analysis of the G20 summit held under the French Presidency in Cannes on November 3rd and 4th 2011. The author assesses the summit agenda and decisions made by the leaders in the key areas of coordination, including the strategy for growth and jobs, reform of the international monetary system, actions to restore financial stability and strengthen the medium-term foundations for growth, deepening of financial sector reform, fight against corruption, investing for global growth. The paper highlights the challenge of implementing two agendas: the planned and the anti crisis one. The conclusion sums up the strengths and weaknesses of the summit and the G20 summitry, reviews the features of the G20 institutionalization, makes a forecast for the sequence of presidencies after 2015, and puts forward brief recommendations for the Russian G20 presidency in 2013. The publication is prepared within the framework of a joint project of Russian International Affairs Council (RIAC) Project and International Organizations Research Institute of the NRU HSE "Increasing Effectiveness of Russia's Participation in G8, G20 and BRICS in accordance with Russian Priorities and National Interests".
The paper presents analysis of the G8 and G20 assistance to developing countries in overcoming the consequences of economic and financial crisis. It assesses the G8's and G20's implementation of key global governance functions and highlights their engagement with international organizations. In conclusion the author gives recommendations for rational division of labour between the institutions in international development assistance.
Development of standards of international controllability is reviewed in the article. Institutional approach is applied to development of international legal regime of Energy Charter. Definition of controllability is connected to development of international standards of dispute settlement, which are described in the article in detail. In connection with controllability, Russian interest, defense of investment in European Union and ecological investment encouragement, is reviewed in the article.
мировое управление и управляемость, Мировая экономика, международное экономическое право, энергетическая хартия, International control and controllability, International economics, international economic law, Energy Charter
This ambitious report prepared under the aegis of Economic Policy Forum focuses on the future of global energy systems, supply-side economics and the pressures for energy diversification, energy efficiency and energy access at the country and sub-national level. The expansive scope of the study is based on the assumption that the reader is familiar with contemporary conversations on energy; it seeks to inform the reader of analyses and perspectives from Economic Policy Forum member countries by synthesising the deliberations in the meetings thus far and building upon the substantive research work conducted through the platform. The focus of research in the Economic Policy Forum follows from the relevance of emerging countries such as BRICS in energy policy debates. One of the paradoxes in such debates, as is pointed out in the report, is the fact that the countries which face the largest energy challenges, or the most important energy policy-related questions, are also countries where policymaking variables are in constant flux. Conversely, in the case of developed countries, a number of fundamental assumptions are well known, which include expectations about consumer demand and industrial consumption extrapolated on the basis of demographic as well as socio-economic trends.
Economic inequality is increasing both within and across countries. Growing inequality has negative economic, social and political consequences, it constrains economic growth, undermines social cohesion and political stability.
Eradicating causes of inequality and turning structural barriers to equality into opportunities is fundamental for generating strong, sustainable, balanced and inclusive growth. Transition to this growth model will depend on G20 coherent policy actions globally and nationally.
In the run up to the St. Petersburg G20 summit the Civil 20 initiated preparing a report and recommendations to G20 focused on surmounting the risks originating from growing income inequality. A special Task Force, bringing together experts from G20 member countries has been established to draft the report. Presented and discussed within the Russian G20 Presidency Civil Society Track (www.g20civil.com), the report provides an independent analysis and proposals for a dialogue between a wide range of stakeholders and the G20 governors on the G20 concerted policies and actions to improve economic equality within their countries and beyond.
This set of policy recommendations on how G20 can address inequality takes full account of the existing authoritative, best available, consensus, analysis and evidence of the IMF, OECD, UNDP, other international organizations and relevant scholarly, civil society and policy communities, as summarized above. It builds directly upon the extensive evidence and analysis of the causes and practical policy cures for income inequality in the G20 member countries, as identified in the country reports prepared by and for members of the Civil 20 Task Force on Equity (currently including Australia, Canada, China, France, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Korea, Russia, Turkey and the US).
The Civil 20 propose that G20 leaders at their St. Petersburg summit can act together to improve income and economic equality within their countries and beyond by agreeing the Saint Petersburg Initiative for Strong, Sustainable, Balanced and Inclusive Growth affirming the value of equality and inclusion along with economic growth and efficiency.
The paper examines the structure, governance, and balance sheets of state-controlled banks in Russia, which accounted for over 55 percent of the total assets in the country's banking system in early 2012. The author offers a credible estimate of the size of the country's state banking sector by including banks that are indirectly owned by public organizations. Contrary to some predictions based on the theoretical literature on economic transition, he explains the relatively high profitability and efficiency of Russian state-controlled banks by pointing to their competitive position in such functions as acquisition and disposal of assets on behalf of the government. Also suggested in the paper is a different way of looking at market concentration in Russia (by consolidating the market shares of core state-controlled banks), which produces a picture of a more concentrated market than officially reported. Lastly, one of the author's interesting conclusions is that China provides a better benchmark than the formerly centrally planned economies of Central and Eastern Europe by which to assess the viability of state ownership of banks in Russia and to evaluate the country's banking sector.
The paper examines the principles for the supervision of financial conglomerates proposed by BCBS in the consultative document published in December 2011. Moreover, the article proposes a number of suggestions worked out by the authors within the HSE research team.