Религия и идентичность
In article on the basis of archival documents are being reconstructed organizational basis and specifics of the youth of exit tourism in the USSR in the initial period of the activity of Bureau of international youth tourism «Sputnik». With the conclusion of expanding the geography of outbound tourism and the expansion of the tourism international relations adjoins the conclusion of the focus of tourist flows, first of all, in the countries of the Soviet block. In turn, the rapid growth of the number of travelling abroad Soviet young tourists with a lag of volumes of outbound tourism on the size of the entrance. The course for the direct exchange without payment in a currency has been accompanied by measures to increase the volume of commercial tourism, especially with the countries of the West.
Several approaches to the concept of fatherhood present in Western sociological tradition are analyzed and compared: biological determinism, social constructivism and biosocial theory. The problematics of fatherhood and men’s parental practices is marginalized in modern Russian social research devoted to family and this fact makes the traditional inequality in family relations, when the father’s role is considered secondary compared to that of mother, even stronger. However, in Western critical men’s studies several stages can be outlined: the development of “sex roles” paradigm (biological determinism), the emergence of the hegemonic masculinity concept, inter-disciplinary stage (biosocial theory). According to the approach of biological determinism, the role of a father is that of the patriarch, he continues the family line and serves as a model for his ascendants. Social constructivism looks into man’s functions in the family from the point of view of masculine pressure and establishing hegemony over a woman and children. Biosocial theory aims to unite the biological determinacy of fatherhood with social, cultural and personal context. It is shown that these approaches are directly connected with the level of the society development, marriage and family perceptions, the level of egality of gender order.