Вспомогательные исторические дисциплины
The volume incklude the results of studying different sources of written, artistic and material heritage of 6-20th cc.
The article describe the amount and the archive fate of “Porubezhbye Acty” collection in the Research Archives in St. Petersburg Institute for History. The collection is the remains of “the archives of the Ambassador Department,, Novgorod Goverbor’s Chamber, 17th century. The collection includes documents connected with the bordercrossing of 17th century embassies, with making the guarded borderline in 1629-1630, with foreign military recruiting in 1630s, with the conversations on the repatriation of prisoners and deserters. In 18th century the archives was discovered and taken to the Academy of Sciences but then it was forgotten and rediscovered only in 20th century
The features of two information systems devoted to the publications of archival documents on the history of Russian serving elite of XVII–XVIII centuries are studied for foresighting the typical problems in similar projects. The main tasks of net- 95 work publications of historical sources are the most correct transfer of the structure and text of the document, the development of electronic finding aids, and setting up computer systems navigation. The preparation of electronic edition of archival documents should have several basic phases, such as reasonable choice of the technology for electronic publication and published documents, the search for the best way of transliteration of the text, the researcher’s work with the originals of historical documents for correction of electronic text, and a description of documents. Application and experience of using the projects are listed and evaluated.
The aim of the presented article is to consider the conditions in which intuitive conjectures in historical constructions transform into a scientific hypothesis. In order to prove it, the author takes into account the procedure of identifying verbal texts which underlie the descriptions found in the historical source, and which explicitly reveal the meaning of the retrospective information. The methodological basis of the study is the hermeneutic approach. One of the unique sources was taken as an example: the only preserved description of the Oprichny Palace, left by the German oprichnik Heinrich Staden. A. L. Yurganov connected a number of details of this description (the square form of the palace, the three gates facing north, south and east, the absence of the western gate, the fact that only the Grand Duke could enter through the eastern gate, etc.) with the City of God described by the prophet Ezekiel. However, Yurganov tried to comprehend the details of the Staden’s description through the Revelation of John the Theologian in order to emphasize the connection of the Palace with the eschatological expectations of the 16th century. Yurganov simply did not notice a number of other details (the coincidence of dimensions, the topography of the Palace, the dates of the creation of the Palace and the designation of the oprichnina, the connection of the Palace with other buildings that appeared in Moscow at the same time, etc.). All of this raised serious doubts about the accuracy of the proposed interpretation of Staden’s description of the Oprichny Palace, if not discredited Yurganov’s idea. These details receive correct interpretation when we turn to the Book of the Prophet Ezekiel and to the Third Book of Enoch. They are also the additional sources on which the article is based. A systematic analysis of the details of the Oprichny Palace makes it possible to assume with full justification that the oprichnina was a preparation for the End of the World, which was expected in 7077 (1569). Ivan the Terrible assumed the functions of the Savior, believing that he was the Messiah himself. The burning of the Oprichny Palace by the Crimean Khan Devlet Giray in 1572 was a sign for Ivan IV that God did not accept this claim. Oprichnina was abolished and the very word oprichnina was prohibited. Thus, a systematic appeal to the correct sources makes it possible to transform a clever assumption into a scientific hypothesis.
The article contains analysis of the problems of historical and cultural heritage protection. The execution of powers for the protection of historical and cultural heritage of the Executive authorities of the Russian Federation and of the Subjects of Russia are considered.
Analyzed the methods of the formation of the source basis in historical research.
The cognitive history paradigm proposed by the prominent Russian scientist is a new research strategy in modern humanities. The crucial element of this concept is an idea of the “intellectual product” as the material evidence and proof of human purpose-oriented activity in history and a universal instrument of cultural exchange across historical periods and political borders. By the using of this concept social scientists obtain the possibility to establish a new methodology of verified historical studies.