Dynamics of National Identity: Media and Societal Factors of What We Are
Globalization, immigration and economic crisis challenge the conceptions of nations, trans-national institutions and post-ethnic societies which are central topics in social sciences' discourses. This book examines in an interdisciplinary and international comparative way structures of national identity which are in conflict with or supporting multi-ethnic diversity and trans-national connectivity. The book’s first section seeks to clarify the concepts of national identity, nationalism, patriotism and cosmopolitism and to operationalize them consistently. The next section regards the diversity within national states and the consequences for the management of identity and intra-national integration. The third section focuses on external integration between different nations by searching for the "squaring of the circle" between the bonding with co-patriots and the critical reflection of one's own national perspective in relation to others. The last section explores to what extent and in which ways media use shapes collective identity.
This study reveals the structure of national identity among Russians, and tests the effects of different components of national identity on attitudes to immigrants. I hypothesize that there are three distinct components of national identity that affect anti-immigrant attitudes differently: nationalism (positive), cultural patriotism (no effect), and political patriotism (negative). The sample (N = 856) includes representatives of the Russian host population, aged from 16 to 71 (Me = 36) of which 51.2% are female. Using measures of national identity and anti-immigrant attitudes from the International Social Survey Programme, I tested and confirmed the hypothesized structure of national identity through exploratory (Study 1) and confirmatory (Study 2) factor analysis. I then tested the effects of three components of national identity on attitudes to immigrants using structural equation modeling (Study 3), and found all the expected associations. In Study 4 I explored the underlying mechanism of the positive effect of political patriotism on attitudes to immigrants, and found that only among people with higher subjective material wellbeing this component of national identity leads to more positive attitudes to immigrants. The study sheds light on the structure of national identity among Russians and explains the controversy of the evidence collected in the earlier studies regarding the role of patriotism in attitudes towards immigrants.
The chapter presents individual and country level factors of two types of national pride derived from D.Kahneman theory of human cognition. The multilevel regression anaysis of the ISSp-2003 data shows that the two types of national pride are primarily determined by different sets of factors.