Эволюция: проблемы и дискуссии
This paper explores the presence of a volcanic evolutionary process similiar to that posited by Henri Bergson in D.H. Lawrence's two novels set in Australia - Kangaroo and The Boy in the Bush. The paper also explores Lawrence's level of acquaintance with Bergson's ideas, and suggests why his familiarity may previously have been underestimated.
From the standpoint of historical evolutionary methodology the origin of sociality is analyzed on a larger than commonly accepted scale - as a problem of emergence and growing complexity of “life together”. This approach provides an opportunity to discover a connection between “life together” and leaps of evolution or, as A.S. Severtsov puts it, aromorphoses of complex systems. The authors argue that a leap of “life together” to a qualitatively new level leads to emergence of sociality based on communicative interactions of non-identical individuals. A universal role in development of any complex systems is played by pre-adaptation to uncertainty. According to biologistR. Goldsmith's hypothesis, the most impressive form of pre-adaptation is evolutionarily supported “hopeful freaks” (similar to “degenerates” in fantastic utopias by A. and B. Strugatskys), potentially capable of occupying new niches in case of problems unsolvable within the limits of existing adaptations.
Thanks largely to the theory of open nonequilibrium systems by I.R. Prigogine, non-classical biology of purposeful activity by N.A. Bernstein, modernist theories and new facts, found in evolutionary biology on the border of XX and XXI centuries, “the rediscovery of time” (I. Prigogine) and the rediscovery of evolution occur. Phenomenology of non-adaptive manifestations in biology, sociology and psychology, perceived as failures and errors of evolution, are involved into their interpretation of preadaptation to unpredictable future turns from background research into a figure. Based on these facts the hypothesis of preadaptation to uncertainty as navigation strategy developing systems is substantiated. It is proved that preadaptation to uncertainty is a key instrument in the generation of the redundancy of biological, cognitive, social and psychological diversity. The process of evolution, understood as the solution to different classes of problems on the uncertainty is associated with two complementary modes of dynamics to historical changes: the mode of adaptive “trends' evolution” determining stability and specialization of species-typical and socio-typical behaviors; mode of preadaptive “evolution of a revolt”, which forms prespecialization, a universal willingness to change and rise to new life forms The hypothesis of preadaptation to uncertainty is the first step towards the formation of evolutionary psychodynamics as a hybrid branch of psychology, linking it with sciences that study the unpredictable changes in the history of man, nature and society.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.