Green Homes: Towards Energy Efficient Housing in the UNECE Region
Green Homes illustrates the multiple environmental, economic and social benefits arising from a transition towards energy-efficient housing. It outlines the required institutional changes and provides some basic principles for successful policies. For a world aiming towards a balanced and inclusive Green Economy for sustainable development, Green Homes is more relevant than ever today.
This article is devoted to the rent regulation problems and housing allowances in post-socialist states. Government regulations during the socialism period created a segment of mass public rental housing which could not meet the challenges of modernity after the collapses of socialism. The attempts to implement market-friendly system were not successful enough and nowadays rental housing market in these states faces many challenges. The authors analyze the scope and form of rent control in post-socialist states, make a comparison of rent control regimes in selected states and also pay attention to housing allowances in reviewed countries. In the conclusions authors emphasize the main problems of public rental housing and forecast the situation in housing system’s orientation.
UN Security Council resolutions are an important source of law for the international system of combating with money laundering and terrorist financing.
The Russian variant of land readjustment deals with vacant lands inside or just beyond the city border. In 2011, federal law allowed municipal authorities to provide multi-child families with free land plots. The definite size of land plots (between 0.04 – 0.15 hectares/ 0.09 -0.5 acres [5, 7]), their location, and level of infrastructure provision were under the jurisdiction of the local administration. The first implementation experience of the law showed that the land plots provided to the families were poorly located and needed an enormous amount of additional investment into infrastructure, construction of housing, etc. Moreover, the lack of financial resources pushed the families to sell their land plots at low prices; therefore, the objective of the law was not fulfilled. Because of this setback, the Federal Agency of Housing Construction Financing (AHCF) created the program of multi-child cooperatives.
In the past decades Foresight has been significantly developed as a tool for long-term forecasting in the field of power generation and energy efficiency. Such research aims at investigation of the most promising innovation strategies in this area, identifying various (including alternative) ways to achieve technological and market goals with the participation of best qualified experts. Such Foresight method as Roadmapping is widespread in the world practice. It helps to shape complex and interrelated views on prospects of innovation development in specific areas of energy efficiency, it links R&D programmes with creation of technologies and products, as well as their subsequent commercialization. The paper provides an overview of the world Foresight experience aimed at creating vision of the future and building innovation strategies related to energy efficiency. Special attention is paid to the Russian research practice, in particular to different types of Foresight projects implemented by the specialists of State University - Higher School of Economics. The authors describe the results of main projects dedicated to shape the future of energy-efficient technologies and to develop of innovation strategies on their application.
The article covers principal provisions of the UN Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea. The study focuses on the specifics of acting legal regimes of liability for failing to preserve goods under carriage by sea and shows the necessity to make a uniform legal regulation. The article also shows wide boundaries for applying the new Convention compared to the apllicable one and the liability kept by the carrier for failing to preserve goods and for delaying its delivery. The difference has been given between negotiable and non-negotiable transport documents, and an electronic transport record has been described as an alternative to a «hard copy» document. The article is also supplied with considering issues of period of time for suit, jurisdiction, and arbitration.
UN Convention, regime of liability, expanding scope of action, liability for failing to preserve goods, delay in delivery, transport document, electronic transport record, period of time for suit, jurisdiction, arbitration
This volume intends to fill the gap in the range of publications about the post-transition social housing policy developments in Central and Eastern Europe by delivering critical evaluations about the past two decades of developments in selected countries’ social housing sectors, and showing what conditions have decisively impacted these processes.
Contributors depict the different paths the countries have taken by reviewing the policy changes, the conditions institutions work within, and the solutions that were selected to answer the housing needs of vulnerable households. They discuss whether the differences among the countries have emerged due to the time lag caused by belated reforms in selected countries, or whether any of the disparities can be attributed to differences inherited from Soviet times. Since some of the countries have recently become member states of the European Union, the volume also explores whether there were any convergence trends in the policy approaches to social housing that can be attributed to the general changes brought about by the EU accession.
The article shows that the housing policy of the new government, in addition to a pronounced housing deficit was defined by a number of other, including ideological, factors. Although the history of the communal system has its roots in the pre-revolutionary past, however, progressive disintegration of the home began in Russia after October 1917. Beginning of the destruction of "communal subculture" had to wait until the decisions of the twentieth party Congress.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.