Formalismes esthétiques et héritage herbartien: Vienne– Prague–Moscou
Zimmermann (1824–1898) contributes an important Ästhetik to the history of aesthetic formalism and he is a major representative of Vienna Herbartianism. In my analysis I show, on the one hand, that he aims at delivering a systematic work, based on the insights which Herbart had already provided, without treating them exhaustively. On the other hand―I argue―it is not unproblematic to reconcile Zimmermann’s views with Herbart’s ideas, especially when crucial notions such as ‘form’ and ‘relationship’ are considered. Paradoxically, the distance between the two thinkers ultimately emerges from the essay in which Zimmermann examines the analogy Herbart himself had drawn between music theory and practical philosophy. My conclusion thus is: where Zimmermann broadens Herbart’s theories, pursuing their explanation and systematic completion, he betrays the main issues of Herbartian formalism and philosophy; Herbart’s most profitable theories―concrete formalism and functionalism―are abandoned in favour of abstract, void constructions.
Herbarts Allgemeine Metaphysik erscheint 1828-29 als Ergebnis langjähriger Reflexionen und vervollständigt Herbarts konstruktive Kritik des kantschen Werkes, die er bereits in seiner Psychologie als Wissenschaft (1824-25) vorgelegt hat. Herbarts Metaphysik findet zu seinen Lebzeiten kaum Beachtung – woran sich bis heute im deutschsprachigen Raum nichts geändert hat. Aus diesem Grund werden die theo-retischen Grundlagen von Herbarts Metaphysik auf Basis neuerer internationaler In-terpretationen erörtert. Dabei stellt sich heraus, dass Herbarts methodologischer Ansatz und seine relationale Ontologie zur Begründung einer realistischen Metaphysik beitragen. Herbart ersetzt das Inhärenzverhältnis durch eine funktionale Auflösung des Gegenstandes, dadurch rückt sein Werk schließlich in die Nähe zeitgenössischer Diskussionen. Dieser Punkt wird anhand von Paolo Valores Vergleich mit Quines Ontologie gezeigt.
Proceedings of the Internationale Herbart-Gesellschaft
A largely unquestioned assumption of (musical) aesthetics holds that art should imitate nature or try to reproduce in its own sphere the effects of natural beauty on the perceiver. The paper introduces a third dimension of the concept of beauty: 'cultural beauty', designating objects of art which have aesthetic value because of their relation to the culture we live in.
The close conceptual tie between music and nature originated in the aesthetic debates of the 18th century. Even Adorno is still indebted to this basic tenet of romanticism. Compositions by Ives (Central Park in the Dark) and Cage (Concert for Piano) negate this close connection between music and nature as a place of order: They relate to the world we live in and mirror its fragmentary, chaotic reality. Therefore, only if we take them to have cultural beauty, may we understand them properly.
In the space of topical stereotypes Saint-Petersburg obtains such naming as «cultural capital», «city of museums», «brilliant Imperial city». However, in the light of the changing economic, social, cultural reality the conservation of this kind of «brand» is a losing strategy. The article provides guidelines and historical-social analyses of such phenomena of modern cultural life of the city as creative clusters, various festivals of the international level. From the point of view of social inclusion such spaces and activities are to implement creative aspirations of citizens, that is valuable to the cultural life of the city: the economic component of this situation allows as to speak about various kinds of financial investments in the cultural sphere, as well as on the development of the tourism industry, different from the traditional «excursion» form. For the « creative industry» stipulates the status of the dominant and the determinant of innovation development of the urban space.
In this article one can find a treatment of early Wittgenstein’s conception of sense of the world in “Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus”. What makes a physical fact to be a murder or a prayer? Wittgenstein considered that facts had no relations with sense, in other words, with Ethics. Facts are accidental. Only their logical structure is necessary. The sphere of necessity, or not accident, is the sphere of Aesthetics. It contains logic and Ethics as vision of the world from the point of view of what one ought to do. Aesthetics is located outside the world and cannot be expressed.
This article argues that the origin of the work of art is not some kind of “happening of truth” (Heidegger); rather, it is what the Greeks call “improvisation”—that is, not simply free play, but far more self-schematization.
The present catalogue contains abstracts for some 150 volumes, among which books, periodicals, miscellanies, published by the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the principal institute in Russia for academic research in all kinds of philosophical knowledge. These works, written by eminent Russian scholars, cover such fi elds as the history of Russian, Western and Oriental philosophy, ethics and aesthetics, synergetics and epistemology, social and political philosophy and concentrate on problems that have attained particular importance in the age of globalization and growth of national self-consciousness.