Толерантность как образ жизни
The review presents the analysis of the content and linguo-cultural and philosophical investigation approaches to the categories of tolerance and political correctness, along with the main directions, trends and priorities for the development of relevant categories research in Russian and world science. The need to develop a tool to measure tolerance has recently appeared on the agenda of the Russian scientific community. While emphasizing the relevance of the language used by mass media and politicians, political scientists, sociologists, ethnographers, historians, register the manifestation of ethnic, racial, religious tolerance or intolerance in the language, thus directly or indirectly provoking aggression. It is known Вопросы психолингвистики 4 (38) 2018 217 Романова Т.В. Информационный обзор: категории толерантность... that the notions of “security” and “geopolitics” also correspond to the sociopolitical and sociolinguistic parameters of intolerant speech behavior: they position “the Other” as a threat to the basic values that define the collective identity, and therefore derive these values from the political sphere. In the context of solving problems of ethno-confessional security, countering xenophobia and developing tolerance in multi-ethnic and multi-religious Russia, it is necessary to regard tolerance as a cultural, psychological, political phenomenon. At the same time, the approach embracing linguistic phenomenon of tolerance via culture of speech, stylistics, rhetoric, communication theory, discursive practices, and assessment has not been sufficiently investigated. The review refers to studies devoted mainly to the linguistic aspect of tolerance, in which communicative technologies of tolerance are identified; the present-day cultural situation in the Russian Federation is measured and analyzed.
The results of studies of ethnic tension at University are summarized. Tension is associated with many personal and interpersonal factors: values, tolerance, identity, personality traits, coping strategies, intelligence, friendly and romantic relationships, joint extracurricular activities. Psychological help to students in resolving their intrapersonal and interpersonal problems may become a factor in reducing tensions at University.
The Russian revolution is a process of ambiguous modernization (since the end of the 19th century), which is still not institutionally completed. The key moment was the events of 2017. Their result was the coming to power of the Bolshevik Party, the Civil War, the formation of the political regime, which gave the very traumatic modernization form for socium. To explain these events, we propose a P.Chaadaev paradox about the prospect of the victory of historically untenable socialism because of the untenable of its opponents. The "Chaadaev factor" content clarified with the help of the concepts of political will and N.Taleb’s "black swans". From this point of view, the society transition into a new state is a matter of a small number of uncompromising people, who are personally interested in the transition, involved in this process. Success comes in the case of simplification of problems and solutions in combination with the accentuated uncompromising minority and sufficient tolerance of the majority, when representatives of this majority have an asymmetry in their choice. The review results are beyond the scope of Russian experience and open up new opportunities for analyzing and solving problems of passionarity and tolerance. For example, if the reciprocity in tolerance conditions will violated, the society may lose immunity in relation to the willful intolerant minority.
The article is devoted to the analysis of the conceptual principles of the Islamic approach to the legal status of the people of other faiths. These initial principles are in the basis of all specific prescriptions of the Shariah concerning the rights and duties of non-Muslims in a Muslim state. The Islamic approach to the legal status of the people of other faiths has changed over the centuries, but its conceptual frameworks remained unchanged. The paper contains provisions from the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad, as well as some conclusions of the Islamic legal doctrine (fiqh) relating to the attitude to representatives of other faiths. In spite of the presence of calls for restrictions on the rights and even oppression of the people of other faiths among such provisions, Islam as a whole hold a position of establishing friendly relations between Muslims and representatives of other faiths.