Сборник докладов международной конференции "Повышение эффективности социальной рекламы в России"
The article analyzes the phenomenon of «politicization» of social advertising (public service announcements). Social advertising used in political purposes became a political technology that undermines its original value as the source of promotion of humanistic values and ideas. The article presents a comparative analysis of the social and political advertising: species, genre, communication, legislative regulation. The article presents the case studies analysis of using PSA's in Russian politics.
The paper deals with social advertisement on HIV/AIDS, Ebola, and malaria in African cities. Each of these diseases is treated differently by the authors of advertisements in terms of key messages to citizens, ways of representation and emotional component. Billboards dedicated to Ebola and malaria are logical, consistent and easily understandable: they give a very clear instructions on the ways of protection from the diseases, although the advertising strategies in these two cases differ greatly (Ebola social advertising uses disturbing colors, splashes of red, multiple exclamation points, clearly indicating emergency situation and drawing people’s attention in a very aggressive way, while malaria social advertising is very calm and positive emotionally, it uses positive images, images of smiling people, smiling children, photos of famous people inspiring their fellow citizens to sleep under nets and care about their families). In case of HIV/AIDS various approaches to the problem are shown: examples of ABC strategy, useless abstract billboards without any message except for “Stop AIDS”, billboards widely using manipulation and false logic to motivate people to be tested for HIV. The authors of HIV/AIDS’ social advertisement to some extent face the same challenges, as the actual epidemiologists due to the way of transmission of the disease and it social character, issues of personal choice and sexual behavior, and in many cases they fail to succeed. However, successful examples with clear, efficient and consistent messages are also present.
The article deals with city space, visual outdoor information, commercial advertisement, social advertisement in African countries, and the ways the latter reflects social disorders and conflicts. The main source is a compilation of photos of social advertisement on billboards, taken by the author and her colleagues during anthropological expeditions to Africa. Much attention is given to such problems as violence within family and against women, corruption, AIDS and Ebola pandemics, teenage pregnancy, "sugar daddies", etc. It is clear, that one and the same problem in different cultures is perceived differently and requires different attitudes toward people’s psychology; though social advertisement mirrors societal concern in African countries, quite often this reflection is based on Western point of view and from the perspective of Western moral and cultural values. In this regard the cases of fully local advertisement (sponsored neither by international humanitarian organizations nor by government) are of most interest: this is a private initiative of people wanting to draw attention of their fellow citizens on the most acute problems of social development and using means at their disposal such as billboards.
In 2006, Russia amended its competition law and added the concepts of ‘collective dominance’ and its abuse. This was seen as an attempt to address the common problem of ‘conscious parallelism’ among firms in concentrated industries. Critics feared that the enforcement of this provision would become tantamount to government regulation of prices. In this paper we examine the enforcement experience to date, looking especially closely at sanctions imposed on firms in the oil industry. Some difficulties and complications experienced in enforcement are analysed, and some alternative strategies for addressing anticompetitive behaviour in concentrated industries discussed.