Доступ граждан к официальной информации как государственный институт: социальные вызовы и институциональные инновации в условиях постсовременности
Article contains an analysis of problems of access to information about state and municipal orders and purchases, The sphere of state orders is financed from state budget and needs in legal regulation which may maintain principles of competition, transparency and controls. Therefore legal norms regulating access to such information play an important role. They permit to lower threat of corruption in this sphere.
ИНФОРМАЦИЯ, ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЕ И МУНИЦИПАЛЬНЫЕ ЗАКАЗЫ, КОРРУПЦИЯ, ЗАКУПОЧНАЯ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТЬ
The chapter identifies general characteristics and analyzes the key features of the regulation of the information with limited access. Special attention is paid to state secrets, official and commercial secrets, as well as to the institution of professional secrets.
Law enforcement control is considered as an essential part of the object of regulation of legislation on access to information and the guarantee of its efficacy. The advanced foreign experience in this field is studied.
The article discusses some issues related to access to information about the bodies of judicial community and their activities. The author analyzes the regulations to ensure the openness of specified information. Particular attention is paid to issues of access to information on activity of the qualifying boards ofjudges on the formation ofthe judiciary. Basing on this analysis the author formulates proposals for changing the order of access to information about the bodies of judicial community and their activities.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.