Гендерное равенство в современном мире. Роль национальных механизмов
The paper is devoted to the position of women in science in the early soviet period, when several reforms were made to promote gender equality in this sphere. It was the first time in the country, women got an institutionally guaranteed opportunity to be professional researchers or teachers in universities. Empirically, the paper is based on archived data and uses the lists of female ‘research workers’ – residents of Moscow and Leningrad in the late 1920s – supplemented with the documentary materials on their social and demographic characteristics and positions in science and higher education. As a result of a statistical analysis of this information, the authors discuss the structure of the soviet female scientific (sub)community in the period critical for its development. Also they seek to determine whether the institutional changes have actually helped the inclusion of women in science, or just transformed ‘the stone walls’ into ‘the grass celling’.
The volume addresses gender equality policies, practices, and conceptualizations in both present and historical context. In order to better elucidate the “global” character of gender equality, the volume will center on the diversity of contextualizations of gender equality, particularly in connection to center-periphery relations,contentious relationship between the global nature of understandings of gender equality and local conditions. The volume will explore, one the one hand, the global dimensions of claims for gender equality with the corresponding design of international institutions to further such claims and, on the other, the local political, social, religious, cultural, and historical contexts in different regions/countries where the politics of gender equality are received, adopted, contested and negotiated.
The book «Institutionalizing Gender Equality. Historical and Global Perspectives» represents collected book of 13 articles edited by Sara Sanders from the Departments of History and Gender, Women’s, and Sexuality Studies, Grinnell College. and Yulia Gradskova working at the Institute of Contemporary History, Södertörn University, Sweden. The articles are united by the broad topic of historical and global perspectives of gender equality achievement in the countries across the world with using the mechanisms of legal confirmation of gender policies results. The review contains both the overlook of edition’s articles and criticality analysis of the authors’ approach to the principle of gender equality problematisation.
This paper examines correlations between the genetic characteristics of human populations and their aggregate levels of tolerance and happiness. A metadata analysis of genetic polymorphisms supports the interpretation that a major cause of the systematic clustering of genetic characteristics may be climatic conditions linked with relatively high or low levels of parasite vulnerability. This led vulnerable populations to develop gene pools conducive to avoidance of strangers, while less-vulnerable populations developed gene pools linked with lower levels of avoidance. This, in turn, helped shape distinctive cultures and subsequent economic development. Survey evidence from 48 countries included in the World Values Survey suggests that a combination of cultural, economic and genetic factors has made some societies more tolerant of outsiders and more predisposed to accept gender equality than others. These relatively tolerant societies also tend to be happier, partly because tolerance creates a less stressful social environment. Though economic development tends to make all societies more tolerant and open to gender equality and even somewhat happier, these findings suggest that cross-national differences in how readily these changes are accepted, may reflect genetically-linked cultural differences.
This work serves as a comprehensive collection of global scholarship regarding the vast fields of public administration and public policy. Written and edited by leading international scholars and practitioners, this exhaustive resource covers all areas of the twin fields of study. In keeping with the multidisciplinary spirit of these fields, the entries make use of various theoretical, empirical, analytical, practical, and methodological bases of knowledge. The encyclopedia provides a snapshot of the most current research in public administration and public policy, covering such important areas as: 1. organization theory, behavior, change and development 2. administrative theory and practice 3. bureaucracy 4. public budgeting and financial management 5. public finance and public management 6. public personnel and labor-management relations 7. crisis and emergency management 8. institutional theory and public administration 9. law and regulations 10. ethics and accountability Relevant to professionals, experts, scholars, general readers, and students worldwide, this work will serve as the most viable global reference source for those looking for an introduction to the field.
This chapter explores the influence of social landscapes, focusing on Russian gender and sexuality (G&S) education under a conservative turn. While the policy banning of ‘propaganda of homosexuality’ declared by the authorities should change public opinion against homosexuality and gender equality in theory, this chapter shows policy is only the beginning of Russian debates. Drawing on interview and survey data, this chapter shows that the laws have not stabilised the narratives of how to deal with gender and sexualities in education completely; and that the Russian education system’s attempts at inculcation of the younger generation in some ways inspired youth curiosity.
This study aims to analyze the gender attitudes of Muslim migrants in Western Europe compared to people in their sending societies and the European receiving societies. I employ the European Social Survey, the European Values Study, and the World Values Survey as data sources. Using cross-classified multilevel analysis, I compare individuals with respect to their country of origin and receiving society characteristics simultaneously. The results show that migrants are closer in their attitude to employment rights to local Europeans than to the public in their sending societies. People who left their predominantly Islamic countries of origin are much less prone to gender discrimination than those who stayed. This paper argues that the majority of Muslim migrants do not adhere to the values and attitudes of their countries of origin, but fall closer to the attitudes of the receiving societies as reflected in their perception of gender roles, particularly within the labor market.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
This article is talking about state management and cultural policy, their nature and content in term of the new tendency - development of postindustrial society. It mentioned here, that at the moment cultural policy is the base of regional political activity and that regions can get strong competitive advantage if they are able to implement cultural policy successfully. All these trends can produce elements of new economic development.
The article is devoted to the study of the authoritarianism prevalent in the mass consciousness of Russians. The article describes a new approach to the consideration of the authoritarian syndrome as the effects of the cultural trauma as a result of political and socio-cultural transformation of society. The article shows the dynamics of the symptoms of the authoritarianism, which appear in the mass consciousness of Russians from 1993 to 2011. This paper proposes a package of measures aimed at reducing the level of the authoritarianism in Russian society.
This work looks at a model of spatial election competition with two candidates who can spend effort in order to increase their popularity through advertisement. It is shown that under certain condition the political programs of the candidates will be different. The work derives the comparative statics of equilibrium policy platform and campaign spending with respect the distribution of voter policy preferences and the proportionality of the electoral system. In particular, it is whown that the equilibrium does not exist if the policy preferences are distributed over too narrow an interval.
The article examines "regulatory requirements" as a subject of state control over business in Russia. The author deliberately does not use the term "the rule of law". The article states that a set of requirements for business is wider than the legislative regulation.
First, the article analyzes the regulatory nature of the requirements, especially in the technical field. The requirements are considered in relation to the rule of law. The article explores approaches to the definition of regulatory requirements in Russian legal science. The author analyzes legislation definitions for a set of requirements for business. The author concludes that regulatory requirements are not always identical to the rule of law. Regulatory requirements are a set of obligatory requirements for entrepreneurs’ economic activity. Validation failure leads to negative consequences.
Second, the article analyzes the problems of the regulatory requirements in practice. Lack of information about the requirements, their irrelevance and inconsistency are problems of the regulatory requirements in Russia.
Many requirements regulating economic activity are not compatible with the current development level of science and technology. The problems are analyzed on the basis of the Russian judicial practice and annual monitoring reports by Higher School of Economics.
Finally, the author provides an approach to the possible solution of the regulatory requirements’ problem. The author proposes to create a nationwide Internet portal about regulatory requirements. The portal should contain full information about all regulatory requirements. The author recommends extending moratorium on the use of the requirements adopted by the bodies and organizations of the former USSR government.