Невоенные рычаги внешней политики России: региональные и глобальные механизмы
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.
A conventional opinion is that Russia is trying to destroy the liberal international order. Russia indeed defies it, but also justifies its foreign policy with the liberal order’s normative frameworks and reproaches the West for not standing up to these norms. Moreover, Moscow does not present any alternative vision. Russia complains about the internal contradictions of the liberal order: sovereignty vs. intervention, pluralism vs. universality, US hegemony vs. equality and democracy, although it also exploits these contradictions. In fact Russia demands an adjustment of the liberal order rather than its eradication and should, therefore, be classified as a neorevisionist power. Two elements underlie Russia’s at times aggressive foreign policy conduct. The first one, its feeling of being ill-accommodated in the present order, predefines the direction of the policy. The second, the prioritisation of foreign policy over domestic reforms, explains the intensity of Russian discontent and its occasional aggressive manifestations. Russia’s domestic consensus regarding its foreign policy, including views on the liberal international order, facilitates this aggressiveness. Three policy conclusions can be drawn: acknowledging that Russia uses the inherent contradictions of the liberal international order opens up possibilities for dialogue and an eventual overcoming of the crisis; the survival and strengthening of the liberal order depends on its embrace of all major players, including Russia, and hence, the need for some adjustments to the order itself; and finally such adjustments presuppose Russia’s readiness to shoulder responsibility for the (reformed) liberal international order.
The paper reviews the problem of persistent and growing role of non-tariff measures to be used in order to protect domestic producers in international trade. It notes the complexity this problem’s settlement at the international level, and the possibility of liberalization non-tariff barriers through the regional free trade agreements. Taking to account Russian’s foreign policy direction of international relations, the paper analyzes the level of non-tariff protection of the domestic market in Egypt as one of the possible future partners of the Eurasian Economic Union in a free trade agreement. Also the paper includes regression model calculation the impact of non-tariff measures on the export of goods from Russia to Egypt which based on the statistical data of the WTO and UNCTAD.
The paper deals with problem of employing the representations of gender relations as a “soft power” resource in international arena. The authors examine how contemporary media discuss the issues whether the image of Russia as a bulwark of traditional values can be used as Russian “soft power” resource in the international arena. The image of Russia as the guardian of family and religious values plays a noticeable role in Russia’s identity politics. At the same time it meets criticism which points out that the idea of restoration of the traditional values, first, is archaic and aimed against gender equality and, second, serves as an element of propaganda and features as a part of the “proxy war” that Russia wages against the West.