Актуальные проблемы социальной, дифференциальной психологии и психологии личности: Материалы международной конференции студентов, аспирантов и молодых ученых
The article will discuss the variety of African migrants’ pathways toward social recognition and success in a Russian megacity by describing and analyzing the experiences of the Ethiopian owners of two establishments in Moscow: a lavish downtown restaurant, and a small café on an international university campus on the city’s outskirts. These cases display various points of both similarity and divergence, but are here regarded as examples of successful African entrepreneurship, each in its own way, contrasting with the usual representation of Africans as passive victims in the receiving society. As background for the analysis we provide information on the changes that have occurred since the breakup of the USSR, and which have impacted on the migrants’ social composition, on their strategies of integration, and on the modes P. 206. of their acceptance by the new sociocultural milieu. The research is based mainly on in-depth and semi-structured interviews with the two establishment owners, their employees, and guests conducted in May to June 2012. It reveals the factors that have promoted their successful establishment in the Russian capital as well as their own perceptions of the position of migrants within it.
Acculturation is the process of group and individual changes in culture and behaviour that result from intercultural contact. These changes have been taking place forever, and continue at an increasing pace as more and more peoples of different cultures move, meet and interact. Variations in the meanings of the concept, and some systematic conceptualisations of it are presented. This is followed by a survey of empirical work with indigenous, immigrant and ethnocultural peoples around the globe that employed both ethnographic (qualitative) and psychological (quantitative) methods. This wide-ranging research has been undertaken in a quest for possible general principles (or universals) of acculturation. This Element concludes with a short evaluation of the field of acculturation; its past, present and future
The paper deals with birth rate among labor migrants from two countries, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan, in Russia. The study is based on an online survey of women migrants from those countries, held in 2018. It is argued that differences in regulation of stay of labor migrants from the two countries in Russia which emerged after Kyrgyzstan had joined the Eurasian Economic Union in 2015, didn’t have a significant effect upon birth rate so far, contrary to expectations. Possible explanation of this is suggested. The results of analysis also are considered against the background of key hypotheses about migration-to-birth-rate relation, currently present in demography.
The distractive effects on attentional task performance in different paradigms are analyzed in this paper. I demonstrate how distractors may negatively affect (interference effect), positively (redundancy effect) or neutrally (null effect). Distractor effects described in literature are classified in accordance with their hypothetical source. The general rule of the theory is also introduced. It contains the formal prediction of the particular distractor effect, based on entropy and redundancy measures from the mathematical theory of communication (Shannon, 1948). Single- vs dual-process frameworks are considered for hypothetical mechanisms which underpin the distractor effects. Distractor profiles (DPs) are also introduced for the formalization and simple visualization of experimental data concerning the distractor effects. Typical shapes of DPs and their interpretations are discussed with examples from three frequently cited experiments. Finally, the paper introduces hierarchical hypothesis that states the level-fashion modulating interrelations between distractor effects of different classes.
This article describes the expierence of studying factors influencing the social well-being of educational migrants as mesured by means of a psychological well-being scale (A. Perrudet-Badoux, G.A. Mendelsohn, J.Chiche, 1988) previously adapted for Russian by M.V. Sokolova. A statistical analysis of the scale's reliability is performed. Trends in dynamics of subjective well-being are indentified on the basis the correlations analysis between the condbtbions of adaptation and its success rate, and potential mechanisms for developing subjective well-being among student migrants living in student hostels are described. Particular attention is paid to commuting as a factor of adaptation.