Таможенный контроль товаров, содержащих объекты авторского права
This paper examines how export and export destination stimulates innovation by Russian manufacturing firms. The discussion is guided by the theoretical models for heterogeneous firms engaged in international trade which predict that, because more productive firms generate higher profit gains, they are able to afford high entry costs, and trade liberalization encourages the use of more progressive technologies and brings higher returns from R&D investments. We will test the theory using a panel of Russian manufacturing firms surveyed in 2004 and 2009, and use export entry and export destinations to identify the causal effects on various direct measures of technologies, skill and management innovations. We find evidence on exporters’ higher R&D financing, better management and technological upgrades. Exporters, most noticeably long-time and continuous exporters, are more active in monitoring their competitors, both domestically and internationally, and more frequently employ highly qualified managers. Exporters are more active in IT implementation. When it comes to export destination, we find that non-CIS exporters are more prone to learning. However, we cannot identify that government or foreign ownership shows any impact on learning-by-exporting effects.
The article is concerned with the customs control principles, i.e. one of the major institutions of the customs law. Russia becoming a member of the Eurasian Economic Community Customs Union led to fundamental changes in the mechanism of legal regulation of customs control relations exercised within the united customs territory of the Customs Union. The author analyses both the legal principles of customs control (such as exercising customs control within the boundaries of legally organized forms; prohibition to cause harm to citizens’ health and property while exercising the customs control; limiting an owner’s rights while exercising customs control, and others) and the organizational principles of customs control (selectivity of customs control; principle of cooperation and coordination while exercising customs control, and others). Keywords: the Eurasian Economic Community Customs Union; customs control; principles of customs control legal regulation; customs control organizational principles; customs control international supranational and national regulation.