Время, вперед! Культурная политика в СССР
Mayakovsky’s words ‘It’s Time, Forward!’ better than any political slogans, reflect the atmosphere in which Soviet cultural policy emerged. This book aims to declare a special preserve and methodological perspective for the study of Soviet cultural history. In it Soviet society is considered as a space of radical projecting and experimentation in cultural policy, which was far from homogeneous, often multidirectional, and sometimes chaotic and contradictory. It was a unique historic example of government intervention in the cultural sphere. The authors attempt to evaluate the social viability of institutions which formed in Russian society, both thanks to and in spite of Soviet cultural policy, and to assess the consequences of the decline and fall of some of those same institutions.
The book targets a wide audience, including culture researchers, sociologists, political scientists, historians, and anyone interested in Soviet history and culture.
The article notes that foreign tourism was considered in the USSR, rather, as an integral part of the ideology and culture, rather than a sector of the economy. Preparation of guides and interpreters in the 1930s and during the «cold war» was determined by the fact that each worker of «Intourist» (and in 1958 and «Sputnik») was considered as «ideological fighter» tourist «front». An important step on the path to becoming a professional tourism education became organized in 1931 in Moscow and Leningrad 3-year courses for guides with learning languages, fundamentals of political economy, economic geography, and other political «wisdom». But in the pre-war period often partisanship, political reliability and ideological consistency dominated by professionalism and a shared culture guides. A turning point in the field of training of guides-interpreters became 1957, when in the «Intourist» established courses on training and retraining of employees of the Department. But the main source of talent translators after the war were the 1st Moscow state Institute of foreign languages, Moscow regional pedagogical Institute. Krupskaya and other universities of the capital. Although the leading form of training and retraining in the sphere of foreign tourism courses of different levels, higher school periodically tried to respond to the requests of the tourism industry. Example - the Institute of foreign tourism in Leningrad (1934-1938 biennium) and Sochi state University of tourism and health resort business in the late 1980s
Studies of post-war Soviet historiography are heavily concentrated around the issues of party control in and resistance of intellectuals. Giving an account of the historical periodicals author seeks to correct this approach in the perspective of the history of science, sociology of culture and cultural policy studies . The article addresses 1) the problem of definition and characteristics of the transformation of the corpus of historical periodicals in the 1950s - 1960s, and 2) interrelation of the new political, economical and media conditions and changes in the management practices and communication strategies of the academic periodicals .
A significant part of the research is devoted to the Soviet musical and ideological construction. The ideal type of "Soviet man", presented in popular musical genres, is characterized by radical novelty and constitutive universalism, which is illustrated on the material of Soviet “songs about the time”, understood not simply as a thematically distinct genre. The history of the «Soviet» as such, can be read as the story of the rise and intensification of reflection of collective engagement into the temporal cognition.
In the period under review, from the late twenties to mid-sixties - you receive a lot of songs, somehow fixing the course of time: here thematized not just subjective experience of immersion into an unordered medium of temporality, but the presence of a sustainable and rational order, to which this medium is submitted. Investigation of the representation of time, memory and youth in the Soviet song of the classical period allows making a conclusion that the stage of final crystallization of «Soviet» musical-poetic meanings is the period of «thaw». In this period the Soviet song takes the genuine universality and integrity, starts to play the role of substance of the «Soviet» as such. Songs about the time - and the Soviet song always somehow relates with time, «small» or «Large» - forms together a generalized three-part formula of the «Soviet»: the link of times (present time is comprehended only through the memory of the legendary past) is given as the fullness of time (memory of the past is not simply subjectively and emotionally experienced, but objectively and actively performed in the present, that is the moment of eternity), which in relation to the future has the quality of absolute novelty (incomplete, flowing, unfinished present is decrepit by definition since its incompleteness requires the occurrence of something different and new; totally completed time, in contrast, is new in comparison with any possible future, because the future is nothing more than the repetition and, perhaps, the isolation, the «privatization» of what is already given in the integrity of the fullness of the time).
In the article author investigates into the experience of national military building in the national respublics of the USSR in the 1920-1930 in the context of soviet cultural, national and language politics.