Доклад о человеческом развитии в Российской Федерации 2013. Устойчивое развитие: Вызовы Рио
The United Nation’s 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offer an extensive framework for coordinating and shaping government policies, and for engaging the public with sustainability. Public understanding of the SDGs and sustainability can influence this engagement, as people are more likely to accept and share information consistent with their own understanding. We identify public understandings of SDGs through mental maps of how people relate the SDGs to environmental, social and economic sustainability. Using responses from 12 developed/developing countries (n = 2,134), we identified four mental maps that varied mainly on two dimensions, which diverged from some expert models. Some people’s mental maps identified tension between achieving environmental versus social sustainability, whereas for others the tension was between economic sustainability and the other two sustainability elements. Some people related different SDGs to each element of sustainability, whereas others saw all SDGs as targeting the same sustainability element(s). These findings highlight opportunities and challenges to engage the public with sustainability more effectively, especially with wide-ranging initiatives such as a Green New Deal. We observed cultural differences but we also identified a dominant mental map across countries that could serve as a default model for communicating sustainability internationally.
Three approaches are developed for assessment of different types of organizational ambidexterity proposed in the relevant literature. The new model for measurement of organizational ambidexterity using data envelopment analysis (DEA) is introduced. The DEA score based on innovation activity inputs and two different performance outputs acts as a proxy for organizational ambidexterity. Sustainability goals and product ambidexterity are also analyzed as the key characteristics of ambidextrous behavior. The introduced three approaches are tested for their aptness to complement each other as well as to support a strategic decision-making. Empirical examples from energy and pharma sectors associate organizational ambidexterity with firms’ performance. We measured the organizational ambidexterity of energy and pharma companies by (1) pursuing long-term versus short-term organizational performance measured as a DEA two-output efficiency score; (2) the share of disruptive products in a company’s activities assessed through the proportion of R&D expenditure or sales; and (3) sustainability versus financial performance of the company, where the Green ranking and participation in innovative financing programs were used as proxies for sustainable development. Positive relation between performance and organizational ambidexterity for energy sector are discovered. At the same time, orientation towards sustainability disrupts performance of pharmaceutical companies. Results of the OA impact on performance are highly industry-sensitive and depend on the methods used in empirical assessment. Our findings suggest that the scarcity of data sources make all three approaches complementary and mainly functional for strategic decision-making.
Article analyses problems of formation of economic system oriented towards sustainable socio-economic development of the economy of “High North”. Author emphasizes existing approach based upon “economy of scale” does not fits to the modern tasks of the economic development in harmony with preservation of the unique Nature and, more over traditional life style and economic activity of endogenous people of the North. Due to author opinion, solution is available in way of integration of modern technology (including Internet of things), extension of rights of local communities and municipalities in natural resources management (based upon inclusive principles) and also formation of spatially interconnected value chains as of goods as of services. Economy od Arctic could not be analyzed and valued as spatially closed system. Economic interests of Arctic areas (first of all of municipalities and communities) needs to be presented at all stages of value creation and value accumulation. Basis for this lies in a term “social value”. Only this basis could create and develop appropriate socio-economic systems oriented towards harmonization of common and specific features of the Arctic economy.
This article examines the impact of financial crisis of 2008–2009 on allocation of development aid. Using OECD data on Official Development Assistance (ODA) allocation for international development by key donor countries, authors test three hypotheses: first, general impact of crisis on ODA allocation; second, impact of crisis on three recipient income groups; third, impact of crisis on relative importance of analyzed factors for ODA allocation decisions. The results show that general impact of crisis on ODA volumes was negative, although donors preferred to increase aid to low-income countries. Impact of factors describing economic situation in donor countries (public debt level, government expenditures and donor growth) increased after crisis. Donor countries might make use of these results to increase efficiency of their development assistance strategies, whereas recipient countries may exploit these results in order to attract more external financing for development.
The authors of the monograph conducted a comprehensive analysis of the situation of single-industry towns of the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation (AZRF). By a wide range of sources, the current socio-ecological and economic status of the mono-cities studied is determined.