The results of empirical study of the role of climato-economic characteristics of 85 Russian regions in the formation of collectivism on their territory are presented. Based on the results of previous research, authors suggested that in regions with sufficient level of economic resources of population for satisfying its needs that arise in accordance to more demanding climate the level of collectivism is lower, and vice versa in regions with insufficient level of economic resources of population for satisfying its needs the collectivism level is higher. These theoretical assumptions were verified, using database «EMISS», which made it possible to operationalize and calculate the index of collectivism for each region, based on statistical data. As predictors that influence the collectivism level in regions, the climate demand of regions and the economic resources of their population are considered. The study results have shown that the climatic demand in regions and the economic resources of their population can be predictors of the collectivism level on their territory.
The article is a first step towards understanding the specifics of the interaction between religiosity and political behavior in contemporary Russia and sets a goal to identify whether there are significant differences in political participation between religious and nonreligious people. Statistical analysis results show that political participation of Russians as well of Europeans is influenced by both religious affiliation of the respondent and the degree of religiosity.
The paper is a quantitative study of the interaction between religiosity and attitudes towards sexual minorities that can be regarded as a manifestation of social conservatism. The aim of the research is to identify significant differences in attitudes towards homosexuals among believers and nonbelievers, those who attend religious services regularly and those who “believe without belonging”. Country specifics of the interaction are in the focus of analysis, as well as the differences among Orthodox Christians from different European countries. Statistical analysis results suggest that in Western, Northern and Southern Europe differences among religious groups in attitudes towards homosexuals are stable and significant while Russia and Eastern Europe demonstrate only weak differences among confessions and no effect of the degree of religiosity on one’s approval of sexual minorities.
This paper is dedicated to analyze the impact of trust as the element of social capital on individual subjective well-being. Are trustful people happier than suspicious people? In the framework of social capital concept we consider three main types of trust: general, institutional and social. By using data of value research in two federal districts of the Russian Federation, which was conducted by the Centre for Comparative Social Research in summer of 2012, we give the estimate of trust level in Russia. Using the method of structural equation modeling the main hypothesis was tested - is there a positive relationship between the level of trust and subjective life satisfaction.
In the article (which is part of a block of two articles, the second of which will be published in the next issue of the journal) results of analysis of characteristics and dynamics of income and subjective stratification models of Russian society are presented, based on data from several nationwide surveys carried out in 1999-2016. It is shown that the current model of income stratification is characterized by the dominance of the middle strata and is adequately reflected in public consciousness, based on the self-assessment of the positions people hold in the society. Economic crisis that started in 2014 so far did not cause any serious changes in the income stratification model or the assessment of their positions in society by Russians.
As for the methodological results of the analysis, it is shown that the optimal methods for income stratification of Russian society should be found among the relative methods used in developed countries, but not among the absolute methods used in developing countries. In addition, given Russia's regional heterogeneity in terms of modernization progress, it is more expedient to use the aggregate model of income stratification constructed on the basis of pre-stratification of regional communities than models based on the average measures for the country as a whole for the analysis of the social structure.
In recent decades, an intensive growth of migration flows has been observed in the world. This leads to new issues and requires changes in host societies. The field of education is particularly important, since the education of children from migrant families causes problems: their inclusion in educational institutions affects the migrants themselves, as well as the sphere of intercultural interaction between children from different backgrounds. In this regard, teachers’ attitudes play a special role. The purpose of this research is to study the relationship between teachers’ attitudes and those of primary school students (10-11 years old) towards migrants. The study was conducted in the form of a socio-psychological factorial experiment in two countries – Italy and Russia. The sample included 227 students. The study showed that the teachers’ pro-social attitudes increase the likeability of the newcomer-migrant, raise positive stereotypical characteristics of the newcomer-migrant’s group, and reduce negative stereotypical characteristics of the same group among the participating pupils In addition, the results showed that the prosocial attitudes of teachers foster a more personalized and more positive perception of the newcomermigrant among the group of peers.
One of the central notions of the sociology of health is the notion of “attitude to health” that includes a system of values and motivations that create a connection between an individual and the society. One’s attitude to their health is a socio-cultural phenomenon that represents a system of personal and selective connections between the individual and the various phenomena of the surrounding reality that favour or, on the contrary, threaten people’s health, and a certain evaluation given by the individual to his or her own physical and mental state. The main objective of the present research is to reveal the types of economic mindset and values that influence the attitude to health in three generations of people in Russia nowadays. The respondents were young Russian people aged 18-25 (574 people), 293 people from the “X generation” (born between 1963 and 1984), and 184 people born between 1943 and 1963. The methodical instruments included: the PVQ-R method developed by Schwartz(Schwartz and others, 2012), the “Index of Attitude to Health and Healthy Lifestyle” (Zakharenkov and others, 2013), the “Your Lifestyle” method (Lebedeva, Chirkov, 2007, 2011), and the method of “Subjective economic well-being” (Khashchenko, 2011). Young people’s attitude to their health is more positive than the attitude shown by representatives of other generations of Russians. The performed regression analysis has revealed that financial deprivation lowers the manifestation of the social component of attitude to healthy lifestyle for the representatives of the Y generation, but it is quite the opposite for the respondents aged 55-74: financial deprivation increases it. Financial stress experienced by the respondents from generations X and Y lowers the manifestation of the social component of attitude to healthy lifestyle. At the same time, financial stress affecting representatives of the older generation has a positive influence on their willingness to change their social environment in accordance with their attitude to health problems.
The aim of the article is to reveal new concepts and models, systems of argumentation, rethinking of main categories, orientation to new social disciplines and self-reflection in different directions of the world history in the 21st century.
In the 1990s world history relying on the achievements of global and postcolonial studies has been radically transformed and, after several decades of existence in the backyards of historical science, has regained its leading position. Studies conducted in the framework of world history have established new directions that are the result of critical and postmodern revolutions in philosophy (postcolonial criticism, first of all) and rely on a number of concepts and approaches developed in the course of anthropological, linguistic and cultural twists and turns.
Firstly, we mean global and transnational history, offering ways to construct a universal non-Eurocentric world. Secondly, world history, analyzing interactions between world systems and local civilizations (cultural transfer), and complex networks of mutual influences of various historical phenomena. Third, the international history of the formation and development of various international institutions. Fourth, the Big history, which claims not only to encompass "the whole world", but also "all the time", that is, a time beyond the social - "time of the Earth."
The attention of historians is switched to the study of social trajectories, cultural exchanges, multiple identities; there is a fundamental rejection of dualistic oppositions (Europe / third world, metropoly / colony, center / periphery, city / village, modernization / tradition). All variants of the "new world history" are alliances of history with different disciplines, up to the attempts at integration with biology, geology, and cosmology.
The next transformation of the historical science in the 2000s and especially in the last decade is unusually favorable precisely for the development of world history. Firstly, it is the renewed need for broad contexts and large narratives. Secondly, the "spatial turn" in the social sciences and in historiography in particular. Thirdly, the awakened interest of historians in the metaphysics of time and the idea of multitemporality.
The article considers wavelike substance of modernization transformations. Having analyzed intrenational crosscultural investigation data the author comes to a cionclusion: so called reverse wave - growth demand for antidemocratic political entity forms and adequate social practices - is a regular, but passing social pattern.
In our study, we tested a model in which the perceived (in)compatibility of being Caucasian and Russian (identity incompatibility) was expected to mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination and acculturation strategies of Russians in the North Caucasus. In the study participated 249 Russians who are living in Kabardino-Balkaria. Using structural equation modeling, it was shown that the Russian perceived discrimination by the dominant population is positively related to the perceived incompatibility of ethnic (Russian) and regional (Caucasian) identities. Identity incompatibility doesn’t contribute the integration strategy, which focused on maintaining own group cultural identity and adoption of culture of dominant population. However, identity incompatibility contributes separation and marginalization strategies, which refutes adoption of culture of dominant population and maintaining contacts with dominant population. Relationship between perceived discrimination and assimilation strategy (adoption of culture of dominant population) not mediated by incompatibility of ethnic and regional identities.
The article is devoted to the political and anthropological analysis of the “revolt of the Soviet masses” phenomenon as a result of revolution of the early 1990-s in USSR, which has freed society from the Soviet party and government fetters. The revolt of the Soviet masses is a way out of the Soviet masses to the forefront of public and political life of post-Soviet Russia and the vertical invasion of the Soviet nomenclature in the public authority of the new state. A comparative analysis of ontological features of the Ortega y Gasset’s “mass man” and “simple Soviet man” was conducted. It’s shown that the “Soviet man” who accounted the vast majority in all ruling and governable social strata and groups and was adherent to state-paternalistic orientation, imperial syndrome and personalized perception of power, has become one of the key political actors. This has created favorable social conditions for development of post-revolutionary political process not on the way to democracy, but towards the formation of personalized neo-authoritarian regime of corporate type.