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Article

Восприятие свободы/несвободы в домонгольской Руси

Modern – especially positive – perception of the concept svoboda (freedom) was created relatively recently. Negative connotations in it residual still were clearly traced even at the beginning of the XX century. The appeal to the pre-mongol Rus’s sources confirms such impression. The person exempted from external coercion, in Old Rus’ was considered more likely as the person unfortunate. And on the contrary, a situation, when the person becomes a kholop (in essence, a slave), is considered as especially positive. Thus positive connotations of the perception of dependence are closely connected with the status of the person on which he was dependent: the more social status of this person was higher, the more it was better. Extreme degree of dependence — the Christian — was especially positive. The free condition was characterized more likely by negative associations.