The presented paper discusses problems of inequality in Mexico. Despite intensive economic growth, the Mexican society is one of the most unequal in the world. According to the National council for the evaluation of social development 51% of Mexicans are poor. And Mexico inequality indicators are the highest in Latin America.
The author examines social measures on reducing inequality taken in post-revolutionary Mexico (1940 – 1990) and new liberal programmes.
The efforts on building “welfare state” during 1940-1990 led to improvement of living standards, widening access to education and health care, but did not help to overcome inequality. The gap between rural and urban population was increasing. After the serious economic crisis of the 80’s, Mexico accelerated its economic liberalization. To reduce inequality social programmes for supporting vulnerable social groups: Indians, women, senior citizens were launched. However, despite the enthusiasm of the government and relatively good economic performance, poverty was not eradicated.
It is concluded that liberalizing trade and embracing globalization is not enough to tackle the inequality problems and the Mexican government should implement policies to equalize opportunities.
Everything connected with the issue of economic and social inequality is very urgent and rather debating in many countries. It has reached its bolding point. Why?
Global warming is arguably the most critical and controversial issue facing the world in the twenty-first century, one that will affect every living creature on the planet. It is also an extraordinarily complex problem, which everyone needs to understand as clearly and completely as possible. This book provides a concise and accessible explanation of the key aspects of global warming. It discusses how and why changes are occurring, sets current warming trends in the context of past climate change, examines the predicted impact of global warming, as well as the political controversies of recent years and the many proposed solutions.
In this paper we use the rich set of unit-level data from the most recent Egyptian household surveys (1995 – 1996 and 1999 – 2000) to assess changes in poverty and inequality between 1995 and 2000. The study analysis is based on the new methodology of constructing household-specific poverty lines that account for the differences in regional prices, as well as differences in the consumption preferences and size and age composition of poor households. The results show that average household expenditures rose in the second half of the 1990s and the poverty rate fell from 20% to less than 17%. In addition to the ongoing divide in the urban-rural standard of living, a new geographical/regional divide emerged in the late 1990s. Poverty was found predominantly among less-educated individuals, particularly those working in agriculture and construction, and among seasonal and occasional workers. These groups could suffer the most from the slowing economic growth evident after 1999 – 2000.
At the present stage, cooperation between Mexico and Spain is multifaceted and effective. Both countries maintain economic, trade and cultural ties, at the same time possessing the various mechanisms for bilateral dialogue and assistance, which together form one of the most multifaceted institutional structures in the world. To date, the status of a natural ally of Spain is one of the central tasks for Mexico. The article examines the key aspects of the cooperation between these countries considering that the Mexican economy is in the midst of the ”destabilizing effect” because of the policy of the new US president Donald Trump, which threatens the political and economic achievements of Mexican-Spanish relations.
América Central, también llamada Centroamérica*, es un subcontinente que conecta América del Norte con América del Sur. Geográficamente se situa entre la fronreta de México y la frontera noroccidental de Colombia, rodeada por el océano Pacífico y el océano Atlántico. Políticamente se divide en los 7 países independientes de Guatemala, Belice, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, Costa Rica y Panamá. Su extensión territorial es de 523.780 km2 y su población es de unos 41.739.000 habitantes. El territorio cubre una superficie un poco mayor que la de España. Prodiga en recursos naturales, su suelo es sumamente fértil, apto para todo tipo de cultivos. El canal de Panamá además de facilitar la comunicación marítima entre dos océanos se hizo en América Central un paso obigado para los buques de todo el mundo. El subcontinente tiene todo para atraer al turismo internacional: hermosas playas, selvas, montañas, volcanes, apasibles lagos, ruinas de antiguas civilizaciones, etc. Pero la región aún está a la espera de que sus gobiernos encaren tres duros desafíos: vencer la pobreza, consolidar sus débiles democracias y apagar los odios que dejaron los largos años de guerras civiles en sus países.
This book provides an in-depth comparative analysis of inequality and the stratification of the digital sphere.
Grounded in classical sociological theories of inequality, as well as empirical evidence, this book defines ‘the digital divide’ as the unequal access and utility of internet communications technologies and explores how it has the potential to replicate existing social inequalities, as well as create new forms of stratification. The Digital Divide examines how various demographic and socio-economic factors including income, education, age and gender, as well as infrastructure, products and services affect how the internet is used and accessed. Comprised of six parts, the first section examines theories of the digital divide, and then looks in turn at:Highly developed nations and regions (including the USA, the EU and Japan); Emerging large powers (Brazil, China, India, Russia); Eastern European countries (Estonia, Romania, Serbia); Arab and Middle Eastern nations (Egypt, Iran, Israel); Under-studied areas (East and Central Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa).
Providing an interwoven analysis of the international inequalities in internet usage and access, this important work offers a comprehensive approach to studying the digital divide around the globe. It is an important resource for academic and students in sociology, social policy, communication studies, media studies and all those interested in the questions and issues around social inequality.
This is the second volume in a series of five books bringing together the results of intensive research on the national systems of innovation (NSI) in the BRICS countries – Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa. This book analyses the co-evolution of inequality and NSI across the BRICS economies. Inequality and Development Challenges argues that inequalities (assets, access to basic services, infrastructure, knowledge, race, gender, ethnicity, and geographic location) that go beyond the aspects of income, must be factored into development strategies since the benefits of innovation are not distributed equally. It combines original and detailed data, making this book an invaluable resource for researchers and scholars in economics, development studies and political science, as well as policymakers and development practitioners interested in the BRICS countries.