On the basis of a monitoring of educational and working trajectories of graduates of schools and higher education institutions The authors think it expedient for studying problems in adaptation of first-year students to training in higher education institutions to sort out groups of fundamentally different students on the basis of the cluster analysis. With the use of a comprehensive survey of Moscow first-year students seven groups are sorted out, and specific difficulties in learning are analyzed in each case, as well as differences between students from different groups in terms of their certainty when selecting Statistics and Sociology of Education an occupation, when assessing social life in a higher education institution, in terms of peculiarities of their goals in life and education.
Institutions affect investment decisions, including investments in human capital. Hence institutions are relevant for the allocation of talent. Good market-supporting institutions attract talent to productive value-creating activities, whereas poor ones raise the appeal of rent-seeking. We propose a theoretical model that predicts that more talented individuals are particularly sensitive in their career choices to the quality of institutions, and test these predictions on a sample of around 95 countries of the world. We find a strong positive association between the quality of institutions and graduation of college and university students in science, and an even stronger negative correlation with graduation in law. Our findings are robust to various specifications of empirical models, including smaller samples of former colonies and transition countries. The quality of human capital makes the distinction between educational choices under strong and weak institutions particularly sharp. We show that the allocation of talent is an important link between institutions and growth.