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## Surface tension of aqueous electrolyte solutions. A thermomechanical approach

We determine the surface tension of aqueous electrolyte solutions in contact with non-polar dielectric media using a thermomechanical approach, which involves deriving the stress tensor from the thermodynamic potential of an inhomogeneous fluid. To obtain the surface tension, we calculate both the normal and tangential pressures using the components of the stress tensor, recently derived by us [Y. A. Budkov and P. E. Brandyshev, J. Chem. Phys. 159, 174103 (2023)] within the framework of Wang’s variational field theory. Using this approach, we

derive an analytical expression for the surface tension in the linear approximation. At low ionic concentrations, this expression represents the classical Onsager–Samaras limiting law. By utilizing only one fitting parameter, which is related to the affinity of anions to the dielectric boundary, we successfully approximated experimental data on the surface tension of several aqueous electrolyte solutions. This approximation applies to both the solution–air and solution–dodecane interfaces, covering a wide range of electrolyte concentrations.