The problem of inefficient activity of small innovative enterprises (IIP) is one of the reasons for the slow development of scientific institutions, including the RAS institutes. The state is gradually reducing their funding, forcing the leadership of institutions to seek the commercialization of the created intellectual property (IP). Many factors influence the activities of IIPs, such as legislative, personnel, financial, infrastructure, information and others, but administrative barriers are among the most significant. Within the framework of this study, the influence of each administrative factor on the activities of existing spin-off companies of RAS institutes is being studied. Among the main tasks of this work, one can note a detailed analysis of Russian and foreign literature on the topic of research, the study of administrative barriers, as well as an expert survey of representatives of the RAS institutes in order to identify the most significant factors for the activities of IIPs. An expert poll was conducted by phone with a pre-prepared list of questions.
Based on the results of the study, we can conclude that the most attention requires regulatory barriers. This area requires the development of a set of measures to improve their effectiveness.
An important risk factor is the weak protection of intellectual property, which not only deprives innovation of the opportunity to be realized, but also contributes to the leakage of technology. This problem is proposed to be solved by introducing a procedure for preliminary patent applications.
In addition, it is important to continuously improve the level of knowledge in the field of patenting, intellectual property rights and entrepreneurship by research organizations.
The above methods are only part of a large set of measures to reduce some of the administrative barriers in the process of commercializing innovation.
The objective of this paper is to examine the internal and external factors of product and organizational innovations, and specifically to discuss the role of the business environment and administrative corruption as barriers of intra-firm innovations in transitional economies. The analysis was based on data from Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey of the EBRD and the World Bank conducted in 2009. Consistent correlations between product innovations and both high administrative obstacles and the growth of corruption costs were revealed. On the contrary, organizational innovations were largely not correlated with the respondents’ assessments of business climate.
Smoking is a problem, bringing signifi cant social and economic costs to Russiansociety. However, ratifi cation of the World health organization Framework conventionon tobacco control makes it possible to improve Russian legislation accordingto the international standards. So, I describe some measures that should be taken bythe Russian authorities in the nearest future, and I examine their effi ciency. By studyingthe international evidence I analyze the impact of the smoke-free areas, advertisementand sponsorship bans, tax increases, etc. on the prevalence of smoking, cigaretteconsumption and some other indicators. I also investigate the obstacles confrontingthe Russian authorities when they introduce new policy measures and the public attitudetowards these measures. I conclude that there is a number of easy-to-implementanti-smoking activities that need no fi nancial resources but only a political will.
One of the most important indicators of company's success is the increase of its value. The article investigates traditional methods of company's value assessment and the evidence that the application of these methods is incorrect in the new stage of economy. So it is necessary to create a new method of valuation based on the new main sources of company's success that is its intellectual capital.
We address the external effects on public sector efficiency measures acquired using Data Envelopment Analysis. We use the health care system in Russian regions in 2011 to evaluate modern approaches to accounting for external effects. We propose a promising method of correcting DEA efficiency measures. Despite the multiple advantages DEA offers, the usage of this approach carries with it a number of methodological difficulties. Accounting for multiple factors of efficiency calls for more complex methods, among which the most promising are DMU clustering and calculating local production possibility frontiers. Using regression models for estimate correction requires further study due to possible systematic errors during estimation. A mixture of data correction and DMU clustering together with multi-stage DEA seems most promising at the moment. Analyzing several stages of transforming society’s resources into social welfare will allow for picking out the weak points in a state agency’s work.